21/06/2019

What To Expect During Your Orthopedic Surgery

Knee replacement is an orthopedic surgery that consists of replacing problematic sections of the knee with plastic and metal pieces that allow the knee to move the way it should. Typically, the procedure involves a long incision, which detaches the muscle from the kneecap. The muscle must be given time to heal, which makes the recovery process longer than other procedures. The damaged parts of the joint are removed, and the surfaces of the joint are prepared for metal and plastic components to be fixed to the bones, mimicking their shape. At the end of the surgery, the muscle is repaired, and the opening is closed.

The procedure typically lasts about two hours. General anesthesia is normally used for joint replacement procedures, so you will be unconscious throughout the procedure. Local anesthesia is sometimes used, meaning you are awake during the procedure, but you cannot feel anything in your knee. You and your doctor may decide which form of anesthesia will be used. You will also discuss whether or not you will need to take antibiotics before the procedure to reduce the risk of infection.

Following the orthopedic surgery, you are taken to a recovery room, where you will stay for a few hours. This procedure normally requires the patient to stay in the hospital for a few days. You may feel some pain during your initial recovery, but you will be given pain medication to reduce the discomfort as well as antibiotics following your procedure. You will be encouraged to move your foot and ankle to help blood flow, and you may use a continuous passive motion machine, which helps to maintain flexibility in your knee.

In the first few days after the orthopedic surgery, you will continue to take pain medication, taking less and less over the next few days. When you start walking again, you may need to use crutches to keep weight off your knee. Following the procedure, you will begin physical therapy to help you get flexibility back in your knee. You will do some exercises to start gaining strength back in your muscles in the area. Rehabilitation usually continues as long as it takes for you to get full strength and range of motion back.

For several months after your procedure, you will check in with your doctor to monitor your progress. You may need to continue taking antibiotics to prevent infection for months or even years following the procedure. Your doctor will urge you to keep exercising, recommending activities such as walking, swimming, or running. Those fatty deposits that give your legs a cottage cheese appearance can be eliminated through yoga. This is because cellulite is mainly a symptom of poor lymph circulation, according to research.

What is lymph? This is the bodily fluid responsible for bringing the white blood cells to your lymph nodes in order to battle bacteria and germs.

Women who take up yoga and keep at it regularly are able to greatly improve their lymph circulation, which then helps flush out harmful toxins found in cellulite deposits. Better blood flow is also one of the good effects of yoga, and this is known as well to help in weight loss and cellulite reduction in particular.

Different Yoga Poses

There are specific yoga poses that you can try out to specifically target your goal of getting great-looking legs.

The so-called plow pose, for instance, is helpful in making your legs smoother and stronger. Lie down first on your yoga mat and then push your butt off the ground with your arms until your body goes over your head, all the while with your legs straight. Extend your legs and let your toes rest on the ground behind your head. Now straighten your arms on your sides with palms facing down. Hold for around 10 breaths. Afterward, you can start bending your knees slowly back to your forehead. Roll your back toward the ground in a gentle manner until you're lying down once again on your back.

Another important yoga pose that can effectively eliminate the appearance of cellulite on your legs and make your legs look more toned too is the half shoulder stand. For this position, you need to begin as well by lying on your back with your arms positioned on the sides of your torso. Next, bend your knees and then slowly curl them upward toward your forehead. Position your hands under your hips so as to push them up and help you roll your body. Your knees should now be on your forehead, and your toes must be pointing toward the back. Keep your elbows on the floor the entire time. Hold this position for around 10 breaths before rolling back on the floor. Muscle building is never an easy or quick task, and it can be even harder as an ectomorph. Ectomorphs (also called hard gainers) are people who typically find it difficult to gain weight as a result of their thin bones and narrow structure. However, as a hard gainer, you have one advantage over individuals with other body types: As soon as you start a workout program, you will see results quickly. You can gain weight as a hard gainer; it only might take a bit more time than if you were a mesomorph. This article will look at an effective hard gainer diet to add weight and keep it.

Eat More Calories Than You Require

If your body burns off every calorie that you take in, then you should pack in more. Your body will see this as a sign that it should store fat rather than burn it off. Try to consume more calories than your body requires, you should aim at adding about 600 calories above what you normally consume. Even though a high calorie diet is advised, you need to be careful regarding the type of calories you consume. Try not to obtain your calories from junk foods as they will not aid you gain muscle mass. Instead, always get your calories from the most nutrient-dense foods.

Focus On Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats

As an ectomorph, your diet should consist of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Focus on consuming complex carbohydrates such as yams, whole grains and brown rice. These foods are more difficult to digest and will not sharply increase insulin levels in your body, which causes fast metabolism. Thus, your body will store them as fat for later use and they will help you gain weight and build muscle.

Aside from carbohydrates, your diet should also contain high amount of protein. It is recommended that you consume 1 gram of protein for each pound of body weight daily. You can obtain your protein in several different forms, like lean red meat, poultry, fish, dairy foods such as yogurt and cottage cheese, eggs, or proteins from plant sources like beans and lentils.

You also need to include fats in your everyday diet. However not unhealthy fats such as saturated oils that cause a sharp increase in blood cholesterol levels as well as blocks arteries. You should opt for natural, beneficial fats which are readily available in nutrients such as omega III fatty acids, omega VI and omega IX fatty acids. These nutrients can be obtained from foods like nuts, avocados and fish.

Drink Sufficient Quantities of Water

It is extremely important that you keep your body, particularly your muscles hydrated. If your body lacks sufficient water, it will begin to extract water from the different muscles in your body, and that can cause you to lose muscle mass.

While it is essential to focus on the right type of diet, it is also important that you have a regular routine of exercise. Always remember that you cannot build muscles if you do not exercise your body. Before you start an exercise program or make drastic changes in your diet, you should first consult with your healthcare professional. It is beyond our comprehension to understand how the brain of an autism affected individual or child works. However research has revealed that the way they perceive everything around them is strikingly different from the way we understand things happening around us. Studies have gone to the extent of stating that autistic children even see your face differently. If their sense of perception is so different then it is only natural to expect why they react so differently to things happening around them. One of the easiest ways to understand this is by observing that while talking to anybody they hardly make any eye contact and also suffer from certain social impairments.

What does research say

Cedars-Sinai researchers have gone on record to explore why the difference in reading faces? Studies conducted by them have stated that a certain neuron found in the nerve cells of the brain defined as amygdala acts differently for an autism affected child as compared to any other regular kid. Amygdala is a certain neuron that plays an extremely important part in trying to decode human emotions. It plays a crucial role in evoking the feeling of fear when we face any kind of threat. It is because of this defect on the neuron that autistic people find it difficult to understand the social cues and process the meaning of emotions in their mind. This inability to explore the real meaning keeps them utterly confused about how they should react, this makes them the recluse that they are trying their best to stay within their own shell.

How was this statement proved

Passing a statement is very easy but it is important to validate this statement with facts and figures. The conclusion that said autistic kids perceive the face very differently is further supported with the help of a research. Let us find out what the research was all about:

The experiment broadly divided into two parts and had two large groups of children, the first group had kids suffering from autism and the other group had kids without this disorder, the first part included children with autism and also the ones without it to look at the face of an individual and respond according to the facial expressions and emotions. The end result of this experiment showed that both the kids group responded almost similarly. The second part of the experiment emphasized that both these groups focus on parts of an individual's face like the eyes, the nose and the lips, etc separately. The second part of the experiment showed remarkable results and a clear demarcation between both the kids group. The conclusion from here clearly showed that autistic kids have a tough time in trying to focus on the eyes and it is easier for them to look into the mouth and focus hard on it. This inability to look into the eyes is probably one of the primary reasons for the bunch of kids suffering from this neurological disorder to have a tough time to read the face of any individual and often end up misinterpreting the face and see it very differently, followed by the lack of social etiquettes and problem in adapting themselves in a social gathering.
Vascular surgery is a medical specialty that relates to the treatment of conditions involving the blood vessels. This includes problems connected to the arteries, veins, and the lymphatic system. Some of the most common vascular issues that are treated by specialists in this field include strokes and mini strokes (TIA's) due to carotid artery narrowing, aortic aneurysm, varicose veins, and poor leg circulation.
The doctor who specializes in this field of medicine treats blood vessel problems, with the exception of those related to the heart. These physicians may treat patients who have had diseases or traumas, and those that have damaged blood vessels and need blood flow restored to a particular area of the body. This is common with those who have diabetes. A patient may begin to have blood flow issues in their extremities and would be referred to a specialist to determine if vascular surgery would help the situation.
Vascular surgeons receive education and training to treat patients who suffer from these medical conditions. Some of the treatments they administer include stenting of veins and arteries, minimal invasive balloon angioplasty, and reconstructive procedures. They also offer their patients counseling to help them to cope with the conditions they are suffering from.
Some of the cases these surgeons take on are emergencies that require immediate attention. Others are urgent conditions that should be referred to the vascular surgery specialist within a day or two. There are also some non-urgent conditions such as asymptomatic carotid artery narrowing, leg pain due to bad circulation, and chronic leg swelling due to lymphatic or venous problems that need attention, but are not immediate concerns.
Not every patient who is referred to this type of specialist is in need of radiological or surgical intervention. Some of them need advice about changing the way they live, such as losing weight and starting an exercise program. Patients need reassurance about the importance of taking the right steps to minimize their risk of cardiovascular disease or stroke. This may involve blood pressure control or antiplatelet and lipid-lowering therapy. Smoking is a major cause of diseases that adversely affect the blood vessels. It is estimated that over 80 percent of patients with vascular conditions are smokers or former smokers.
Some patients who are referred to specialists by their primary care physicians will need to be referred to further specialists such as radiologists or clinical vascular scientists. They may wish to discuss with the individual the prospect of radiology, while some individuals will need to have vascular surgery.
Those who require vascular surgery suffer from various disorders that can negatively affect their quality of life. The doctor's job is to do everything possible to prevent further problems, as well as to promote heart health and to help the person live as normal a life as possible, despite the medical condition they are experiencing.


Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/8156975
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What We Often Misunderstand About Food

Underactive thyroid (also referred to as hypothyroidism) is a condition that manifests itself as a thyroid gland that does not manufacture enough of certain essential hormones. The thyroid gland plays a critical role in controlling the rate at which the body utilizes energy. It accomplishes this by manufacturing two hormones - thyroxine and triiodothyronine. These hormones govern the rate at which metabolism occurs within individual cells and play important roles in the regulation of body development. Therefore, thyroid problems can bring about a wide variety of symptoms. Keep reading to learn about underactive thyroid symptoms.

Initial Signs and Symptoms of Underactive Thyroid

Two of the initial symptoms of this condition are sluggishness and tiredness, however patients often ignore them. After that come more identifiable symptoms like joint and muscle pain, low cold tolerance, lack of appetite, joint and muscle pain, slow body movement as well as constipation. Some sufferers might notice moderate weight increases. As thyroid hormone levels reduce, the hair and skin tend to become dry, rough and lifeless. Also, women who are in their child bearing age may experience irregular menstrual cycle. In contrast, women who are in the premenopausal age range might experience heavy menstrual cycles.

Later Stage Symptoms

If hypothyroidism is not treated early, the condition will deteriorate further. It might lead to thyroid gland enlargement, which is also referred to as goiter. Also, it can cause a more severe complication called myxedema. This occurs as thyroid hormone levels become very low. At this stage, the symptoms include weakness, puffiness at the face, lack of sensation within the legs and arms, thinning eyebrows, hair loss and voice change.

Several individuals who have advanced hypothyroidism complain about concentration problems and weak memory. The condition also affects the general mental state and might result in depression. Effects of certain medications, injuries and infections are so serious in some underactive thyroid sufferers that it can result in coma. This may cause extremely low body temperature. Certain symptoms are common in elderly patients such as uneasiness, memory loss and hearing loss.

Underactive Thyroid Symptoms In Growing Children

Children and infants also suffer from underactive thyroid. This is why new born children are examined for the condition. If the condition is detected at an early phase, the child can be saved from any abnormal development and growth through proper treatment. Sleepiness, constipation, puffy face, throaty harshness and frequent choking when feeding are some of the early signs of hypothyroidism in babies.

If they do not receive appropriate treatment in time, babies with hypothyroidism may develop protruding abdomens, delayed teething, and dryness of hair and skin. The children may also be too short for their age, have less than normal intelligence, and a puffy appearance. In other words, hypothyroidism can severely affect a child's normal mental and physical development.

Underactive thyroid symptoms affect millions of individuals in different parts of the world and are particularly prevalent in women. Thus, women should learn all they can about the condition and its symptoms. If a pregnant woman develops this condition during the first three months of pregnancy, she should see her physician right away and undergo therapy for the same, so as to ensure the unborn child has optimum chance of growing and developing normally. Plenty of people, if asked whether or not they would like to have rock hard abs, would immediately answer "Yes." Of course, the addendum to this answer, for many people would be, "but I really don't want to put in all the effort it would take to reach that point." Of course, if this is the case for someone, there is very little that can be done to help them, as it does require some hard work to get the body you want to have - however, there are also plenty of other people who have both a strong desire for rock hard abs and a willingness to work hard to reach this point, and who still are unable to ever quite get abs that look the way they want them to look. This can be - quite understandably - extremely frustrating, as it would seem like working out hardcore would yield better results, but what many of these people rail to realize is that there is more to getting rock hard abs than simply "working out a lot."

The first thing that will be important for you to realize, when it comes to getting rock hard abs, is that the food you eat is going to have a huge impact on whether or not your abs look the way you want them to look, as many people actually do have strong, "cut" abs, but these abs are simply covered by a layer of fat that will not go away (and no, just because you do a bunch of ab workouts does not mean that stomach fat will disappear!); if you want to get abs that make people look twice at you each time you go to the beach or the pool, you need to make sure you are eating for fuel (eating healthy foods that give you quality, natural energy), instead of eating whatever you feel like at whatever given moment.

The next thing you are going to want to be aware of is the fact that some of the workouts you imagine are targeting your abs are actually not doing as good of a job as you think; take the time to learn more about the workouts that will truly target your abdominal muscles the right way, and you will find that it is quickly becoming easier for you to achieve the results you want.

Finally, it will be important for you to realize that there are a lot of systems out there for helping you build abdominal muscles the right way (that is, systems that will help you build ab muscles quickly and effectively), and oftentimes, teaming up with one of these systems will be the best way to ensure you are taking the right approach and are sticking with it, and will consequently be the best way for you to start approaching the results you have been chasing for so long. As the sun goes down earlier, the days shorter and the evenings have become longer people tend to stay inside a bit longer this time of year, thus exercising significantly less throughout the fall and winter months. Many of us have spent all spring and summer trying to lose weight and get fit, until we get to the point of looking good and feeling well. With two major American holidays ending on New Years Eve the overweight and obese face waking up on January 1st feeling guilty, unwell, and as if the past year has been wasted. This cycle is now in effect to repeat itself year after year. This is potentially demoralizing for the overweight and obese.

This seesaw effect on body weight has its own health issues in itself and studies indicate that stable-body weight is healthier in the long term and has a huge impact on the mental well-being of the overweight and obese. With just a few small adjustments and the following tips we all can slow down and stop the inevitable weight gain of the holiday season and get a jump on weight loss for the upcoming year.

Breakfast - skipping breakfast will prove to be a big mistake. Showing up to a feast while starving couldn't be unhealthier. When hungry the ability to eat increases dramatically. Turkey Skin- turkey skin should be avoided like the plague. Turkey skin contains many calories and non-usable fats. Physical Activity- going for a walk before the holiday dinner will burn almost 10% of your caloric intake. Get involved in the family football or basketball game. Only One Large Dinner- be sure to have only one large dinner on Thanksgiving and Christmas. Two or more large meals in one day are an enormous caloric intake. Proving to be completely unhealthy and detrimental to weight loss.

For the holiday season, be sure to remember that this is a festive time of the year and important for your well being to enjoy yourself and family. Realistically it may be more practical to focus on maintaining your weight rather than losing weight during this time of the year. Intelligent eating, portion size, and exercise can help overweight and obese people maintain their weight and help you get off to a great year following the holidays. Remember that most holiday foods like turkey, sweet potatoes, squash, nuts and cranberries are naturally healthy therefore should be eaten during the holiday season. While foods containing high caloric intakes like egg yolks, mashed potatoes and gravy, and turkey skin should be avoided. Gynecomastia is an enlargement of the glandular tissue in a man's breasts causing them to protrude from the chest giving them the look of female breasts. Gynecomastia is quite common in males who are going through adolescence. It can also occur at infancy and in middle-aged to older men. It happens because of an imbalance of hormones in the male body. They receive more estrogen, which is a female hormone, than androgens which is found in males. As you can imagine, it can make a man feel very self-conscious about himself. It can cause anxiety and depression because they do not want people noticing this about them. Men with this issue often avoid public situations where they may have to take their shirt off. For example, going to the pool or playing basketball with the guys. It's a concern for a man's mental health, as well as, physical. There is hope and different ways on how to get rid of gynecomastia.

Besides hormonal imbalance, gynecomastia can also be caused by drug abuse or a side effect of taking certain medications. Drugs, such as, Spironolactone which is a diuretic drug that helps with urine flow, can cause a decrease in androgen. If being treated for hyperthyroidism with ACE inhibitor drugs, for instance, Captopril or Enalapril can cause gynecomastia as a side effect. Cirrhosis of the liver and kidney failure have all been linked to this disorder and it is also believed that it could be genetic.

Not only are enlarged breasts a symptom of this disorder, men should also look for breast tenderness and possibly, a discharge from both breasts. If this happens, along with swelling and tenderness, then it is important to see a doctor. Although, it is not a serious medical problem it can be painful and embarrassing.

More often than not, gynecomastia will go away on its own. However, if it doesn't go away on its own there are treatment options available. If you are wondering how to get rid of gynecomastia, see below for the most common methods of treatment:

    Natural Methods - Body fat stores estrogen and also turns testosterone into estrogen. So, it makes sense that reducing body fat would help. Increase your physical activity with strength training and cardio. Also, watch your diet because a lot of the chemicals in our foods can cause hormonal issues. Eat organic and natural foods as much as you can. Stay away from preservatives.
    Medication - The most common medications are Raloxifene and Tamoxifen, which fights against the estrogen level in some tissues of the body. These medications are also useful in treating women with breast cancer. Another popular medication is Korexin.
    Surgery - Liposuction or having a mastectomy are the most common surgeries. Liposuction would keep the breast gland tissue intact, but would remove breast fat, whereas, in a mastectomy the breast gland tissue would be removed.

Attempting natural methods first may be a good idea since you don't have to worry about the risk of side effects from medication or negative reactions to surgery.

Some natural supplements are also available. Tribulus Terrestris is a plant that can be used to increase testosterone levels. It stimulates a hormone known as a luteinizing hormone which is produced in the pituitary gland. This causes the gonads to secrete more testosterone. Flaxseed has also been said to help lower estrogen levels. Also, red Clover is an herb known to reduce estrogen in the body. There is a tea that can be made with red clover or it can be taken as a supplement.

Hopefully, these suggestions have educated you on how to get rid of Gynecomastia. With a combined effort to change your diet and exercise, along with possible use of supplements, this should be enough to naturally get rid of this embarrassing health problem. Please remember to always consult your physician first as surgery may still be required.
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Keys To Getting The Ab Muscles You Want

Flu or influenza is caused by a virus that has been given the name influenza virion, belonging to the Orthomyxoviridae family. Enclosed in an envelope of spherical structure, the outer layer of the virus is a lipid membrane. The virus obtains this membrane from the host cells and uses it for growth. The membrane comprises of spikes, formed from glycoproteins that are referred to as hemagglutinin or HA and neuraminidase or NA. It is these proteins that have led to different classes of the influenza virus: typically influenzavirus A, influenzavirus B and influenzavirus C. Just below the outer lipid membrane lies the viral or matrix protein, which is called M1. This protein forms a sort of shell and provides a rigid support to the membrane.

The three classes of influenza have more or less the same structure that has been described above. They have a diameter that is between 80 and 12 nanometers. Their shapes are spherical, but influenza C also exists in the form of cordlike structures.

Effects on Health
Influenza can have adverse effects on health that start with a flu and progress onto diseases as serious as pneumonia and bronchitis. The initial symptoms are very similar to the common cold such as runny nose and sneezing. These are accompanied with fever, aching muscles, headaches and fatigues.

Though influenza can develop in anyone, there are factors in which the chances of infection are more. For instance, young children and people above 65 are more prone to suffering from influenza. Living condition also play an active role in this, and if an individual lives among many people, he is more likely to develop influenza.

The most effective ways to treat influenza are antiviral medications.

Transmission
Influenza virus is easily transmissible through air via sneezes and coughs. When a person infected with influenza coughs or sneezes, he emits droplets in the air that contain his infected saliva. These droplets create aerosols that contain the virus and lead to its spread. Other than this, nasal secretions and bird droppings can also help in the transmission.

Prevention
The main key to preventing influenza is to preventing the virus. Soap can do this, so regular hand washing is required. Wash your hands thoroughly for almost 15 seconds, and use a hand sanitizer when you are done. Sunlight can also play a role in preventung the virus, and decreasing infection risk. If you stay away from crowds, there is a lesser chance you The idea of a medical dictionary may seem somewhat out of date or even old-fashioned in today's world, but there was a time not that long ago when people would instantly rush to any type of medical dictionary when they felt there was something wrong with them.

People would scour through the pages of these books looking for symptoms, causes, remedies and all types of information on what they believed was wrong with them. These types of dictionaries, although not widely accessible were common enough for many people to be able to get hold of them and use them as a precursor of self-help medical websites.

Unquestionably medical dictionaries do have a value, whether they appear in printed form or on-line, but as with many things it is how they are used and by whom that is the most important thing.The advent of the internet brought with it a burgeoning supply of health-related websites, many of them quite accurate and quite helpful, and a number of them very inaccurate and decidedly unhelpful.

Being able to differentiate between what is a helpful and unhelpful health website is a very difficult process at times but one that has become increasingly important to do. When these health websites started appearing, there were numerous anecdotal instances related of patients turning up at their doctors surgeries armed with printouts of web pages that would tell the doctor exactly what was wrong with their patient and what needed to be done about it.

Many medical professionals became quite defensive about the use of health websites on-line, a trend that thankfully has now pretty much disappeared. There seems to be a growing awareness by people of how to use these on-line medical dictionaries with some degree of caution and discretion. The need to take responsibility for one's health becomes more and more relevant in today's world, given the high cost of health insurance and related problems that result from limited benefits and tightly controlled in and out networks of health care providers.

Individuals have to take responsibility for their health and are increasingly reliant on information provided on-line by health-related websites. The obvious danger of a health-related website is in part whether or not information that it provides is accurate or not, and in part about how that information is used.

Perhaps the best source of websites that are relevant to a health issue tend to come from the effective self-help groups and group forums that relate to a particular health condition or illness. Anyone who lives with a particular type of illness or disease tends to have a better understanding of it in a felt sense and many other people, and as such can often give best guidance as to where people can do to learn about it. Do you remember the last time when you were sick? You surely do not recall that time. Well, if you had been still sick, you would have been praying to God for good health. No doubt, we feel that it is necessary to take precautions before a small ailment becomes serious. Such is the importance of health in our lives. Often, unexpected events or incidents pose a threat to the health of a person. In such a situation, one cannot avoid going to the hospital. However, what about the remote areas where one cannot access hospitals or any kind of healthcare service? In this situation, a medical call center is the only one that can offer timely help to the people in need. We cannot deny the fact that a well-timed call for these services can save the life of a person. This is the reason one needs to be aware of the medical facilities available to him in his neighborhood.

Call center services changed the business models of organizations across the world. The services of a contact center are not confined or limited to a particular domain or industry. These unique and useful services have surpassed the boundaries of industry and nations. Not only do the services of a top contact center provide you with best-in-class customer care services, but also add to the overall efficiency of your business. However, when we talk about medical aid, it goes without saying that round-the-clock assistance is mandatory. A medical practitioner can achieve high service levels by utilizing a pharmaceutical call center.

All of us understand that spending quality time with his patients is the inherent desire of a medical practitioner. However, many physicians are associated with more than one medical service provider. Consequently, they are overburdened with a lot of responsibilities. In such a situation, medical answering services can be deployed to answer the calls of patients.

Call centers engaged in providing medical services allow a doctor to focus on his patients. He no longer needs to worry about attending the calls of his patients. In addition, the customer service representatives at these call centers are trained and qualified medical professionals who make sure that the issue of every patient is addressed in a timely manner. Moreover, they also provide the details of the patients to the medical practitioner. This allows the practitioner to plan further course of treatment. Besides all this, contact center services can also help physicians with tasks such as making confirmation calls and verifying the time of a patient's appointment. In this way, the work of a physician is reduced to a large extent.

Health is the most important element in the life of a human being. We cannot enjoy anything in our lives if we are not healthy. This is the reason most hospitals opt for a hosted contact center of repute. It is understood that a call made to medical contact center has to be regarding a health issue. Therefore, customer service representatives need to be prompt and accurate in their actions. After all, you cannot keep a customer on hold if there is a medical emergency.

Alicia Gray is a qualified executive who started working for a medical call center after five years of practice in contact center. At present, she is associated with a company that provides contact center services to a variety of industries ranging from IT and insurance to consumer goods. Despite a hectic work schedule, she takes out time and writes articles on the trends and practices of call center industry. GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease) is a condition in which the contents of the stomach flow upwards into the esophagus. This disease can result in pain and discomfort in your intestinal parts. Many numbers of individuals suffer from the unusual burning discomfort in the stomach, esophagus, and chest (heartburn), which are usual signs and symptoms of this disease. Acid reflux disease could be induced because of pregnancy, morbid obesity as well as damage in the poor stomach functionality. Research experts have analyzed many people all over the world and so they found out that gastroesophageal reflux disease (gerd)inhibits normal digestive functions.

Severe heartburn or acid reflux is regarded as among the most typical digestive illnesses worldwide. The Usa Department of Wellbeing and Human Service has gathered scientific proof that signifies that at least seven million people are afflicted with this condition in America alone. As time passes, the amount of individuals who suffer from gastroesophageal reflux disorder (Gerd) has dramatically boosted. Between the year '95-'09, the symptoms of gerd (Gastroesophageal) reflux disorderhave raised to thirty-nine%, whilst the incidence of extreme symptoms have risen by 24%. Furthermore, constant indications of acid reflux disorderhave risen by about 3%.

In nations where you can find poor diet and high-risk of malnutrition are the ones in danger from the symptoms of acid reflux. Cultures who indulge in poor ways of eating suffer from digestive illnesses more often than people who consume numerous vegetables as well as fruit, and also marine-based foods and crops which contain huge quantities of anti-oxidants and 100 % natural ingredients. According to a new international study, GERD is more widespread in America as compared to Europe and that is triggered by nutritional and lifestyle ways. Individuals with gastroesophageal reflux disorder (gerd) have very low percentage in the nations of Asia, Africa and China where people consume higher fibre diets, that make healthy and strong cells. The value of diet plan in preventing the signs and symptoms of acid reflux diseasehas been confirmed by many scientific research.

There are various characteristics and mechanisms which can be connected to the symptoms of acid reflux.. One of the most popular diseases that medical doctors treat is gastro-esophageal reflux illnesses. People who have gerdare usually more prone to develop many degenerative illnesses in the body. According to the medical study, 50 to 90 percent of severe heartburn or acid refluxsufferers are inclined to experiencing respiratory ailments, just like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Medical data support the development of therapeutic preventative methods for acid reflux disease.

For individuals suffering from acid reflux disease, 70% of them are acquiring respiratory illnesses because of the damage brought on on the stomach. Continuous damaged to the epithelium and esophagus block airflow and also right flow which results in acid reflux. Having poor diet, gastric acid can raise; this could cause indigestion and regurgitation, enabling the acidic materials of the stomach upward to the esophagus. Disturbances in biochemical functions of the stomach area make extreme heart burn in 60 % of gastroesophageal reflux disorder (gerd) patients. One of the desires many people have is to finally get their body into shape, to a point where they can feel comfortable going to the beach or hitting up the pool and strutting their stuff - knowing that people will look and be impressed, rather than assuming that people are looking and chuckling or turning away - and yet, this is also one of the most difficult things for many people to actually end up accomplishing; if you have a goal of getting strong, cut ab muscles (the sort of ab muscles that will cause people to ask you how the heck you reached that point!), you will need to make sure you are sticking to these three keys to building the ab muscles you want.

1) Remain consistent: a lot of people make the assumption that working out a ton each time they work out is one of the most important things they can do, but the truth is, it is far more important that you remain consistent in your workouts than it is that you are doing a ton whenever you do work out; if you are sticking to your ab workout routine every single day, this will bring you much greater results than you would get if you were simply working really hard a couple days a week.

2) Knowledge goes a long way: Doing the wrong workouts - or working out in the wrong manner - can double or even triple the amount of time it will take for you to achieve the results you desire; instead of simply trying to "buckle down and work out," take the time to first understand what should go into these workouts, and what you can do in order to really strengthen your ab muscles and get them looking the way you have wanted so long for them to look.

3) Lifestyle is vital: Plenty of people work out hard core, and still never find that they are able to achieve the results they want to achieve (or, for that matter, to come close at all to the results they are hoping for), and eventually they reach a place where they assume that they must be doing something wrong in their workouts, or - worse - that there must just be something wrong with their body that does not enable them to look the way they want to look; the truth, however, is that making sure you are eating healthy and making sure you are getting proper rest and sleep each day are just as important as making sure you are working out consistently and in the right manner.
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07/06/2019

What Are Some Popular Dental Procedures From Expert Dentists

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This blueprint it comes to genuine areas a change we have to begin specialized investigation bovine change every understudy incredible activity of a superior way you answer when the super decade among any industry producers for win In this age of information overload, it's too easy to go surfing and search for answers. Unfortunately, most of them are half baked tips on how to grow taller in a natural way. The write-up seeks to offer you a good answer on how to get taller by taking care of three important aspects: exercise, diet and sleep.

It's not uncommon to see teens and adults addicted to unhealthy foods such as burgers, pizza, and oxygenated drinks etc. The pituitary gland in our brain produces inadequate quantity of the human growth hormone causing slow growth. It is essential for you to fill up your tummy with natural food having high nutritious value like kale, spinach, green leafy vegetables etc. Milk takes on an important role in giving calcium essential for enhancing the bone density. Make it a point to include foodstuffs which are full of vitamins like B1, B2 etc. as well as minerals such as zinc. They all perform an important role towards bone growth.

It's also important to know that growth hormones are released in a maximum amount once when a person is in deep rest. This is why having at least 8 hours rest everyday is important. This is because human bones and muscles tend to be more at ease and elongated after having good rest. Besides, when you have rested enough; you will be empowered and rejuvenated. Nonetheless, people who lacks rest will affect their way of thinking and may bring about complications of attaining a healthier lifestyle.

People generally think that after they attain puberty, it is impossible the height could further increase. Research studies and results obtained by people in the real world have proven otherwise. Yet, irrespective of your best efforts, you could find that your height isn't growing. It might be the case that your growth plates have closed. You may choose to get an X-ray scan to find out that. Be aware that junk food items sucks your body of necessary minerals and vitamins. Taking a capsule inside your mouth isn't going to be the miracle solution.

Most people should be knowledgeable that performing body building workout routines regularly can stop physical growth. That's the reason why one must steer clear of heavy lifting exercises which include bench press, lifting heavy dumbbells and kettlebell exercise just to name a few. Nevertheless, there's a kind of exercise that stimulates height, and this is through stretching programs. You can execute swimming and bar hanging and other appropriate stretching exercises. Finally, one mustn't worry much about surpassing puberty since there are some reported instances of height increase while performing these workouts.
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22/05/2019

How to Overcome Overpopulation in Health

Forgetfulness often disturbs our mind at one point of time or other. Information does not come to our mind when we want it badly. While we are doing certain task suddenly we remember that something we have to do in the kitchen. When we are in the kitchen we simply forget what we have to do and feel stupefied and helpless. While we have a saunter we come across a good friend but don't remember his name however hard we think. While we are writing an examination we just don't remember that one important point. The other day when I helped myself a cup of tea, I was stirring and stirring the tea for a while and realized that there was no sugar only after having the first sip. Last week I had to discuss with a friend whose office is at the 20th floor. After the discussion I left his office and had to use the stairs as the elevator was not working. On reaching the 1st floor I remembered I left my phone at the office and had to climb up all the 20 flights of the stairs. There are numerous examples of forgetfulness like these. Why do we forget? Can we avoid forgetfulness? Is forgetfulness an inherent weakness in the design of our mind?

Forgetfulness is often forgetting things which we should remember. In general, people forget more and more as time passes. We find it difficult to retrieve from our memory the name of an old friend whom we have not seen for long. If we meet a friend often we generally will not forget that friend's name. Each time we meet the friend the memory is reinforced. So something is happening in our brain when we see a person or a thing often. Repetition enables us to remember things for a longer or life time. While we have a saunter we come across so many people whom we forget quickly. The memory may last for only a few seconds. It seems brain deletes information which is not important and stores information which is important. How does the brain know that? We will have to inform the brain. How do we inform the brain? We have to actively think about the information in order to store it in our brain. The more we actively think about it the more it lasts in our memory. What if we want to forget a person or an event? It is equivalent to thinking actively about a person or an event. Therefore, we will never be able to forget that person or event. It seems we have to actively think about other persons or events so that in due course we might forget what we consider not important. So far we have found two reasons for forgetfulness. One reason is that we don't give importance. The second reason is that we don't actively think about the thing we want to remember (the second follows from the first). Sometimes we forget things even though we give importance to and actively think about them. Consider the example of writing an examination. Why do we forget that one important point?

Writing an examination requires long term memory. It involves a huge amount of information, some of which lasts a lifetime. Information enters long term memory as a result of either of two factors: (1) repetition or (2) intense emotion. We do several readings before the examination in order to remember the maximum number of points. Yet, we forget that one important point. Scientists know little about what happens in the brain when it stores memories. However, storing new memories seems to involve both chemical changes in the nerve cells of the brain and changes in their physical structure. Research indicates that these chemical and physical changes occur in a tiny section of the brain called the hippocampus when a person stores new memories. The hippocampus is part of a larger structure called the cerebral cortex, which controls many higher brain functions. When we learn one material and move on to learn another material, the first learned material may initially block the learning of the second material. Once we think actively and learned the second material it may block the remembering of the previously learned material. Scientists call this phenomenon as interference. When the previously learned material hampers the remembering of new material, the hampering process is called proactive interference or proactive inhibition. Likewise, when the learning of new material hampers the remembering of the previously learned material the hampering process is called retroactive interference or retroactive inhibition. Sometimes, you may be able to remember effortlessly that one important point after the examination is over. Such temporary loss of memory, which occurs frequently, is called retrieval failure. Memory experts believe that people can, with practice, increase their ability to remember. One of the most important means of improving memory is the use of mental aids called mnemonic devices. They are memory aids that include rhymes, clues, mental pictures, and other methods. To use mnemonic devices, you must first learn them and often invent them. After learning a mnemonic device, however, you can use it at any time you wish.

Our brain is capable of executing a procedure without our conscious or active involvement. If you drive your car in a particular route everyday then you know effortlessly when to take left and when to take right. Similarly, making a cup of tea is a standard procedure which we do it every day. But when you change the sequence of activities then you have to relearn the new procedure. Until you master the new procedure the previous procedure will interfere with the new one. That is why I was stirring and stirring the tea thinking that I had already put the sugar. I call this phenomenon phantom execution: it is a situation in that the execution of an activity happens only in the mind of the executor and the feeling of the executor that the work has actually been done. Many people experience phantom execution not only in domestic works but also in corporate works. In corporate world, this phenomenon calls for interlocking system where manual work or both manual and machine works are involved. Why does our brain switch over to automatic mode when we execute a routine work? It could be our brain's efficiency of optimum use of energy and its ability to perform multiple tasking.

Consider the example of my kitchen discomfiture. It seems our brain is capable of alarming us to execute a to-do-list of activities. It means our brain has an internal clock work system. We know little about how far this internal clock work system synchronizes with the actual clock time. The flash in my mind that I had to perform a certain task in the kitchen while I was doing some other work is the proof that the brain is capable of alarming us. At what time the alarm comes to our mind needs an internal clock work system. Why didn't the alarm remind me once I was in the kitchen even though I tried so hard? Is that my brain was still actively involved in my previous work and the previous material was hampering my new work (proactive inhibition)? Or, is that the brain does not remind you twice? I think the brain is not so harsh on us. The reason should most probably be proactive inhibition. Cognitive load must have messed up with the internal alarm system of the brain.

The amount of information entering our consciousness at any instant is referred to as our cognitive load. When our cognitive load exceeds the capacity of our working memory, our intellectual abilities take a hit. Information zips into and out of our mind so quickly that we never gain a good mental grip on it (Nicholas Carr, on Cognitive load in 'This Will Make You Smarter,' 2012).

Working memory is what brain scientists call the short-term store of information where we hold the contents of our consciousness at any moment. They also believe that the storing capacity of working memory area is finite and limited. In the 1950s, Princeton psychologist George Miller famously argued that our brains can hold only about seven pieces of information simultaneously. Some brain researchers now believe that working memory has a maximum capacity of just three or four elements.

The brain's many structures are networks of neurons. Each structure makes connections with other brain structures. Information flow back and forth through the connections and allow brain structures to work together to create sophisticated perceptions, thoughts, and behaviors. The human brain has about 100 billion neurons. Each neuron consists of a cell body and a number of tubes like fibers. The longest fiber, called the axon, carries nerve impulses from the cell body to other neurons. Short, branching fibers called dendrites pick up impulses from the axons of other neurons and transmit them to the cell body. The point where any branch of one neuron transmits a nerve impulse to a branch of another neuron is called a synapse. Each neuron may form synapses with thousands of other nerve cells. This system implies the flow of information is unidirectional. Some axons have a coating of fatty material called myelin. The myelin insulates the fiber and speeds the transmission of impulses along its surface. Myelin is white, and tightly packed axons covered with it form white matter. The neuron cell bodies and the axons without myelin sheaths make up the grey matter of the brain. The cerebral cortex is made up of grey matter, and most of the rest of the cerebrum consists of white matter.

The cerebrum makes up about 85 per cent of the weight of the human brain. A thin layer of nerve cell bodies called the cerebral cortex or cortex forms the outermost part of the cerebrum. Most of the cerebrum beneath the cortex consists of nerve cell fibers. Some of these fibers connect parts of the cortex. Others link the cortex with the cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord. A fissure divides the cerebrum into halves called the left cerebral hemisphere and the right cerebral hemisphere. The hemispheres are connected by bunches of nerve fibers, the largest of which is the corpus callosum. Each hemisphere, in turn, is divided into four lobes. They are (1) the frontal lobe; (2) the temporal lobe, at the lower side; (3) the parietal lobe, in the middle; and (4) the occipital lobe, at the rear. These lobes have distinct domains of functioning, although in practice there is a great deal of interaction between them.

Broadly speaking, the occipital lobes are mainly concerned with visual processing. In fact, they are subdivided into as many as thirty distinct processing regions; each partially specialized for a different aspect of vision such as color, motion, and form.

The temporal lobes are specialized for higher perceptual functions, such as recognizing faces and other objects and linking them to appropriate emotions. They do this latter job in close cooperation with a structure called the amygdale, which lies in the front ties of the temporal lobes. Also tucked away beneath each temporal lobe is the hippocampus, which lays down new memory traces. In addition to all this, the upper part of the left temporal lobe contains a patch of cortex known as Wernicke's area. In humans this area has ballooned to seven times the size of the same area in chimpanzees; it is one of the few brain areas that can be safely declared unique to our species. Its job is nothing less than the comprehension of meaning and semantic aspects of language - functions that are prime differentiators between human beings and mere apes.

The parietal lobes are primarily involved in processing touch, muscle, and joint information from the body and combining it with vision, hearing, and balance to give you a rich 'multimedia' understanding of your corporeal self and world around it. The parietal lobes have expanded greatly in human evolution, but no part of them has grown more than the inferior parietal lobules. So great was the expansion that at some point in our past a large portion of it split into two new processing regions called the angular gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus. These uniquely human areas house some truly quintessential human abilities. The left angular gyrus is involved in important functions unique to humans such as arithmetic, abstraction, and aspects of language such as word finding and metaphor. The left supramarginal gyrus, on the other hand, conjures up a vivid image of intended skilled actions - for example, sewing with a needle, hammering a nail, or waving goodbye - and executes them.

The frontal lobes also perform several distinct and vital functions. Part of this region the motor cortex is involved in issuing simple motor commands. Other parts are involved in planning actions and keeping goals in mind long enough to follow through on them. There is another small part of the frontal lobe that is required for holding things in memory long enough to know what to attend to. This faculty is called working memory or short-term memory.

Therefore, we can infer that certain parts of the frontal lobes are involved in the to-do-list of activities. The alarm system must have signaled the frontal lobes at appropriate time for an appropriate action (kitchen example). The appropriate action is sent to the working memory area for processing the information; the information is either a visual or verbal image. As I have already been involved in another task, the working memory area is fully loaded with information. The working memory area (WMA) now has to accommodate the alarm information which is urgent in nature. The WMA either has to delete certain existing information or has some extra space to accommodate information for urgent work, as WMA can hold only limited number of information. There is a possibility that the alarm information and the already existing information in the WMA must have been messed up and a partial message is processed which is enough to urge me to go to the kitchen. While in the kitchen the WMA is still fully engaged in the other activity and the alarm information is deleted from the memory. Normally one image will trigger another image and the second image will trigger a third image and so on until the brain groups all these images into meaningful information. In the kitchen case, the first image could not trigger a second image and I stood baffled. So, what is the solution? It is better to sit down in the kitchen (it is easier to bring back the kitchen information in the kitchen itself) and disengage all the activities. Think one by one the activities you do in the kitchen. Probably, within minutes, you will be able to recollect the information you temporarily lost.

The causes for forgetfulness are many and they depend upon the situation. The reason for not remembering the name of an old friend is we didn't assign importance to that person and therefore haven't actively thought about that person for long. The reason for climbing up all 20 flights of the stairs to pick my phone is procedural lapse. We leave our cell phones wherever we go. If we keep the phone at a particular place we will always remember where it will be found. Otherwise, our brain will have to process all the spots chronologically to find finally where we left the phone. The brain will be wasting a lot of energy doing that complicated process. When you go out, remember the things you carry and actively think where you keep those things so that you can always get your things back. After visiting a place, check whether you have all the things you carried with you before leaving that place. You can save a lot of energy and time! The reason for forgetting that one important point in the examination is retrieval failure. You can use some mnemonic devices such as rhyme, acronym, or something which you can invent yourself. First memorize the mnemonic device then associate all the points to the device and then repeat the second process several times till you master it. The reason for not remembering what you have to do in the kitchen is cognitive load. You just sit down, disengage all thoughts in your mind, and actively think about all the activities you do in the kitchen. You will retrieve the information you wanted.

Our brain is evolving and will continue to evolve in the future. That is why our brain has certain unique features which the other organisms do not have. Our brain has certain limitations also. Our eyes are not telescopic; we are not good at echolocation as bats are; our smell organ is not as good as a dog's. On several accounts we are weaker than many other organisms. Our weaknesses are sometimes blissful or rather that is what we desired. If our eyes are microscopic we will not be able to eat food and if our eyes are telescopic we will never have privacy. Similarly, forgetfulness is sometimes good and sometimes bad. It is part of the game of life. Perhaps, in the future we may see things which are far away. But we do not know how our brain will find the way. It could be the telescopic eyes or the astral projection. If evolution has to go at faster pace, I think, we have to change our attitudes. Only evolution can tell us the truth. While we live with our inherent weaknesses, we can use our brain and solve our human-made weaknesses.
Wales, a popular destination in the British education industry is also the mother of the first ever Britain University, that was conceived by St. Illtud in the 6th century on the coast of Vale of Glamorgan in South Wales. Inheriting one of the finest universities, Wales offers world-class education and placements all across the globe. Apart from just being a renowned name there are various other reasons why most of Indian students aspire to study in Wales. Here are they-

#1 Wide range of Excellent courses-

Apart from pursuing programs, studying in any university of Wales provides you with numerous career options especially, for those looking for diversified courses in any and every field. Along with excellent career options in multiple fields, Wales is also renowned for its language, history, exquisite landscape and science innovation that make the study experience all the more exciting and rewarding.

#2 Diversified crowd from all across the globe-

More than 11000 thousand students enroll themselves for higher education in Wales out of which more than 1100 students are from abroad and 2000 from India. Having once in a lifetime experience and getting globally connected at one place is another reason why maximum students from Asia and UAE and other parts of the world look for higher education options in Wales. These statistics not only provide information on Wales popularity in terms of pursuing higher education abroad but also give a clear picture about why international students prefer Wales to other higher study destinations.

#3 World's Education Hub-

There are more than 11 universities offering higher education in Wales along with 30 centers of excellence, 91+ departments acquiring 4 star in research and 66 departments rewarded for best teaching quality.

#4 Treasured Experience and Incalculable Confidence-

Studying in Wales does not only offer you the finest education but also evangelize you in a refined human being. Interacting with people from all around the world makes you informed and the increased communication incorporates a lot of confidence and interpersonal skills in every individual. Having a practice of studying with all kinds of people from the planet gives impeccable experience for a lifetime that brings the introvert out of you and ripe you for the future challenges of life.

#5 Enhanced quality of Life and Respect-

Every aspirant who wants to study in Wales knows that welsh education is globally recognized by the employers and various academic institutions. Having said that, surveys have showcased that the students passed from any of the Wales university enjoy a better quality of life and respect than any other parts of UK which clearly shows how Wales universities counterparts all other UK universities.

However, on the contrary the expenses of higher education abroad is another major concern for most Indian students. Therefore, having a sound back up before aspiring to study in Wales is a crucial element for every student. Perhaps, the incalculable experience and opportunities that come your way after getting a certification from a renowned Wales university is incomparable and makes a once in a lifetime opportunity.

With a keen eye on Indian as well as global education scenarios, Ishani Yadav has been penning her own insights into industry with an underline on education in abroad niche. Here comes an article authored by her where she throws some light on how study in Wales is a world class experience.
We are starting to hear more and more concerns about climate change. There are calls to try to limit carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels and even the need to manage climate change when it happens. But I propose that climate change science is very uncertain. The earth's climate is constantly changing between hot ages and ice ages. However the extent to which it is occurring is very much linked to population growth. Rather than get bogged down in arguments about climate change I want to examine something that is undeniable; Overpopulation. Time is running out. The most fundamental problem facing the world today is overpopulation leading to pollution and degradation of the earth's environment on a massive scale.

There are a number of critical reasons why our leaders are not prepared to tackle overpopulation and even if they want to, it all seems too hard to solve. To understand how we got to this situation, I would like to take a brief look at history then consider what is stopping us from really doing something practical about it. If we don't the alternative will be catastrophic, as nature will decide the issue for us the hard way, most likely through droughts, floods and famines.

So let's go back to very early times when tribes of hunters and gatherers roamed the world. The furthest we can go back and understand how our ancestors really lived with any degree of certainty is probably around 50,000 years. In the case of Australian Aborigines and other hunters and gatherers around the world, it is thought their customs and beliefs changed little over time, so a lot of information has been collected about their lifestyles and spiritual beliefs. For instance it is known that the Australian Aborigines have always been a highly spiritual people with an extremely strong affinity to the land and animals they needed for food. They managed the land through the use of fire to encourage new growth of plants and trees, so the animals they hunted could thrive. When burning off they even left pathways so the animals could move away from the fire.

Being excellent bushmen they usually spent part of each day hunting and gathering which left plenty of time for their rituals, dancing and story telling about the 'dreamtime'. They were very much into sharing food within each tribe. For example, if one member caught a kangaroo one day another might catch one the next day. So sharing was very important for survival. It seems they were content with their lot and didn't need to develop their "economic system" further in terms of crops and farming. Nor did they see any need for permanent homes (apart from the use of caves) or the need to create stone monuments to honour their spirits.

Thus, theirs was a simple life lived in harmony with the land and nature. When the first white settlers arrived in Australia there was no pollution and if left alone it is likely the Aborigines could have carried on with their lifestyle for many more thousands of years. I have used the Australian Aborigines as one example. Similarly hunters and gatherers in many other parts of the world carried on for thousands of years in harmony with their environments had they not met with what we call civilization.

This is extremely important because we have to ask if the modern civilized, industrialized world, can carry on for thousands of years into the future the way we are going at present with overpopulation, pollution and degradation of environments around the world?

So from the ancient tribes people living in harmony with their environment I want to briefly examine how we got to where we are in today's modern world and what we must do to survive with an acceptable lifestyle in the future

Overpopulation that has led to pollution and degradation of the environment is a direct result of The Industrial Revolution. This is generally considered to have begun in England around 1750 and quickly spread around the rest of the world. For the first time in human history factories were able to manufacture mass-produced goods and people started to have a standard of living that could not have been previously imagined. Unfortunately the factories created three things; a mass movement of people to the cities, an explosion in population growth and pollution on a scale never seen before. This has expanded and continued growing rapidly to the present day.

But I would like to go back before the Industrial Revolution (from here on the IR) and consider why this huge change in human activity occurred at this time and why it had never before happened in human history.

Why do I want to consider this? Because I propose that the very thinking that helped create the IR is what is again needed today to tackle overpopulation. So what was this thinking that led to the IR and why did it never happen before in history?

To do this I would like to look at ancient Egypt, then ancient Greece then medieval England and Europe.

Having abundant harvests due to the Nile River flooding and fertilizing their crops, the Ancient Egyptians were able to gain freedom from full time farming and develop a vibrant culture that still fascinates scholars today. But they needed protection from marauding tribes, which required warlords. Over time these warlords were able to convince the people they were 'god kings' or Pharaohs, a type of living deity on earth. The Egyptians achieved marvelous things under these Pharaohs including building great cities and of course the pyramids. In reality with our modern technology however today these could easily be replicated. The important point however is that the Egyptians were not encouraged to think for themselves. They were required to obey the Pharaohs and the priests who told the people what to think. Thus they were never able to create an IR due to the control of the 'god kings'.

So Egypt remained an agriculture based economy and their population grew only slowly. It is thought to have only grown from around one million to perhaps 4-5million over the entire 3000 year period of the Empire.

Next let's look at ancient Greece, which is regarded as the birthplace of Western Philosophy. Ancient Greece had a type of democracy although it was very hierarchical and they also had slaves with few rights. However it spawned some great thinkers, particularly Socrates and his pupil Plato. Socrates argued, "Few climb out of the cave of ignorance and are ridiculed if they try to help others out." He was concerned with 'Justice' and questioning everyone and everything. Unlike the Egyptians his thinking was not controlled by Pharaohs however, when he criticized what Athens was doing and extolled the virtues of one of their enemies, the elected State Officials did not tolerate him. He was tried for treason and executed. So just as there was no free thinking under the Pharaohs there was no place for free thinking under the elected State in ancient Greece and hence no IR.

Again their economy remained agriculture based and the population of ancient Greece grew only slowly. In fact may have only been around 350,000 people.

Finally, medieval England and Europe where the Church and the Kings working together controlled the people. Unlike the Pharaohs who claimed to be divine the churches claimed to have the only true access to the word of God through the Bible and other religious texts. Again the people were told what to think and although there were advances in weaponry, mathematics and literature, the people had to obey rather than think for themselves. Thus the economies of the time remained largely based on agriculture and again population grew slowly.

However, in the 1600's after the devastating 30-year war that engulfed most of Europe, something happened that had never occurred before in human history. Centuries of mistreatment at the hands of monarchies and the church finally brought a reaction from the people and the most intelligent and vocal decided to speak out and abandon the old 'truths' that had been thrust upon them. One example of this was the strongly held belief by the churches that 'the sun revolved around the earth.' This was disproved by Galilee, who like Socrates was punished for his trouble, although he was put under house arrest rather than being executed.

The new movement has been called 'The Age of Enlightenment'. One of the great leaders of this new movement was René Descartes who gave us the brilliant saying:

'I think therefore I am'.

It may be hard to believe that what on the surface appears to be a simple statement, questioning whether we exist or not, actually paved the way for the Industrial Revolution. It in effect says, 'My mind exists and I can think for myself, (without the church, state or monarchy telling me how to think). I have freedom of thought, I can reason things out for myself'. This shifted the concept of 'What is the Truth,' onto the judgment of the individual. Rather than be told what to think by religious authorities claiming to know what God wants us to think, the responsibility was now put with the individual, 'I am, and no one will control how I think'.

Finally the shackles of the god kings, authoritative state powers, monarchs and the churches, telling people what to think throughout the centuries, had been thrown off. For the first time in history people started to think freely for themselves. This along with democracy paved the way for mans greatest invention, the Industrial Revolution.

Look around you; nearly everything in your home is the result of the IR. It has given us wonderful technology that is still ongoing today. However, on the other hand the world is about to face the downside of this, our greatest invention.

Apart from the comforts for everyday living the IR has resulted in huge breakthroughs in medicine and medical care. In particular antibiotics and well meaning programs in Africa and other developing countries have caused a population explosion. Before this, even in Western societies, people had very large families, as due to high infant mortality rates only a few children made it through to adulthood. Thus out of 10 children only two might have made it into adulthood. Nowadays with better medicine including antibiotics and vaccination programs, most children not only make it through into adulthood, but are also living into old age. However in the developing world people are still having large families and know little about contraception.

Thus we have a population explosion. In 1750 at the start of the IR the world's population is estimated to have been around 1 billion people and had been at that level for many centuries. In a little over 250 years since the start of the IR the world's population has grown to over 7 billion today and is likely to reach over 9 billion in the next 50 years. Recent studies by the United Nations claim some 850 million people are malnourished or starving and over 1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water.

A graph of population growth looks like an "L" backwards with population growing very slowly over the centuries then suddenly taking off around 1750 with the Industrial Revolution.

Not only is the earth overpopulated with pollution from developed countries but also with the recent industrialization of China and India (with Africa likely to follow in the future), we are creating pollution on a scale never seen before.

The results of this are more than evident through environmental degradation. We are faced with:

- Heavily polluted cities
- Deforestation around the world
- Deserts expanding and more frequent droughts
- The greatest extinction of animal species since the dinosaurs
- Recurring famines and suffering in Africa and other developing nations
- Over fishing and depletion of fishing grounds around the world
- Coral bleaching due to run off from rivers from farming

The two main sources that account for nearly 80% of air pollution around the world are; industry 52% and transportation 27%. It has been estimated that electricity generation from coal fired power stations accounts for around 40% of all air pollution. Wind power and other non-polluting power sources are mostly inefficient and costly. We need to re-look at modern nuclear power options but with public paranoia about it, a whole paper could be written on this topic.

So what can be done about the fundamental cause of environmental degradation; overpopulation?

Unfortunately nothing much is being done to stop overpopulation. Many programs were tried in India in the 1960's and 1970's but failed due to cultural problems and women's rights movements. These have been largely abandoned. In China the authorities claim the one child policy has prevented up to 400 million births but independent studies claim the figure is more like 100 million. In any case this policy would not work in a democracy like India.

We think we live in a free world but are we really free to think like Descartes did in the 1600's? Isn't it time to once again throw off the restrictions on our thinking being imposed from many powerful sources and again start to think for ourselves?

So what are we up against?

For a start there is a massive need for education to overcome entrenched beliefs and ignorance in both the developing and developed worlds. Some of the main ones are:

Religious Organizations- Entrenched Beliefs

Oppose contraception.
Oppose the night after pill.
Oppose abortion including early pregnancy abortion.
Preach that God will provide. Believers must abstain from sex or only use the Rhythm method.

At the very least religious organizations need to be made to stop their opposition to contraception. Where in the religious texts does it say, Thou shall not use contraception?

Developing Countries -Education needs:

Need education not to have large families any more.
Need to be made aware they can use contraception.
Need training in what is available and how to use contraception.
Need access to cheap contraception particularly condoms and also IUD's.

Overall they need education and access to cheap contraception particularly condoms which also help to stop the spread of AIDS.

Politicians- Lack of Interest

Want continued economic and jobs growth, which requires population growth.
Don't see any votes in measures to stem population growth.
Don't understand the concept of zero population and economic growth (see later).

Public pressure is needed to put population and environmental concerns as the top priority and that zero population and economic growth is desirable.

Companies - Profits come First

Want growing markets and growing populations to sell more and more products.
Want to be allowed to pollute and destroy the natural environment in order to maximize profits.

They need to be encouraged to become good corporate citizens by minimizing pollution and producing durable products that last.

Developed Countries - Apathy, Fear and the Consumer Society

The general public don't see overpopulation as a major concern and anyway nothing much can be done.
There is fear and opposition to nuclear power for electricity generation.
They don't understand the concept of zero population and economic growth.
They have been 'brainwashed' into thinking that to make them happy, they need more and more consumer goods and the latest models/fashions.

Overall the general public needs to be 'deprogrammed' from the consumer society to know something can be done about population growth and not to fear nuclear power.

Zero Population and Economic Growth:

If we can manage to slow population growth we need to think of the economic consequences. In the future we will need to make quality products that last for as many years as possible rather than 'consumer society products', that look good but only last a short time. Many, if not most products made today, actually have planned obsolescence built in. With slow to zero population growth, not only will producing products that last for many years, stop the wasteful use of the earth's resources, it will be vital, to create employment to maintain and repair these products over many years. So rather than build more and more factories that employ less and less people per factory, if we make products that last a long time, we will create employment that will be needed for repairs and maintenance for these long lasting products. This is probably the only way we can have sustainable slow to zero population and economic growth; producing quality that lasts.

The significance of this cannot be overstated. On the one hand the whole of the western world is geared towards the consumer society and obsolescence of consumer goods and the need to have the latest fashions. On the other hand religious organizations and other groups with vested interests, are totally opposed to birth control necessary to stem population growth.

The list is long and entrenched attitudes will not easily be overcome. Modern humans have been on the Earth some 200,000 years and have so far survived. We have been given the powers of reason and the ability to understand the consequences of our actions. However our modern society is not in harmony with nature and we have overpopulated our planet. Is it not time to arise out of the cave of ignorance and to again start to think for ourselves? We need to get overpopulation and climate change at the top of the agenda. The medium to do this also now exists; the internet.
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What Are Reasons for the Use of iPads in Schools?

We are starting to hear more and more concerns about climate change. There are calls to try to limit carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels and even the need to manage climate change when it happens. But I propose that climate change science is very uncertain. The earth's climate is constantly changing between hot ages and ice ages. However the extent to which it is occurring is very much linked to population growth. Rather than get bogged down in arguments about climate change I want to examine something that is undeniable; Overpopulation. Time is running out. The most fundamental problem facing the world today is overpopulation leading to pollution and degradation of the earth's environment on a massive scale.

There are a number of critical reasons why our leaders are not prepared to tackle overpopulation and even if they want to, it all seems too hard to solve. To understand how we got to this situation, I would like to take a brief look at history then consider what is stopping us from really doing something practical about it. If we don't the alternative will be catastrophic, as nature will decide the issue for us the hard way, most likely through droughts, floods and famines.

So let's go back to very early times when tribes of hunters and gatherers roamed the world. The furthest we can go back and understand how our ancestors really lived with any degree of certainty is probably around 50,000 years. In the case of Australian Aborigines and other hunters and gatherers around the world, it is thought their customs and beliefs changed little over time, so a lot of information has been collected about their lifestyles and spiritual beliefs. For instance it is known that the Australian Aborigines have always been a highly spiritual people with an extremely strong affinity to the land and animals they needed for food. They managed the land through the use of fire to encourage new growth of plants and trees, so the animals they hunted could thrive. When burning off they even left pathways so the animals could move away from the fire.

Being excellent bushmen they usually spent part of each day hunting and gathering which left plenty of time for their rituals, dancing and story telling about the 'dreamtime'. They were very much into sharing food within each tribe. For example, if one member caught a kangaroo one day another might catch one the next day. So sharing was very important for survival. It seems they were content with their lot and didn't need to develop their "economic system" further in terms of crops and farming. Nor did they see any need for permanent homes (apart from the use of caves) or the need to create stone monuments to honour their spirits.

Thus, theirs was a simple life lived in harmony with the land and nature. When the first white settlers arrived in Australia there was no pollution and if left alone it is likely the Aborigines could have carried on with their lifestyle for many more thousands of years. I have used the Australian Aborigines as one example. Similarly hunters and gatherers in many other parts of the world carried on for thousands of years in harmony with their environments had they not met with what we call civilization.

This is extremely important because we have to ask if the modern civilized, industrialized world, can carry on for thousands of years into the future the way we are going at present with overpopulation, pollution and degradation of environments around the world?

So from the ancient tribes people living in harmony with their environment I want to briefly examine how we got to where we are in today's modern world and what we must do to survive with an acceptable lifestyle in the future

Overpopulation that has led to pollution and degradation of the environment is a direct result of The Industrial Revolution. This is generally considered to have begun in England around 1750 and quickly spread around the rest of the world. For the first time in human history factories were able to manufacture mass-produced goods and people started to have a standard of living that could not have been previously imagined. Unfortunately the factories created three things; a mass movement of people to the cities, an explosion in population growth and pollution on a scale never seen before. This has expanded and continued growing rapidly to the present day.

But I would like to go back before the Industrial Revolution (from here on the IR) and consider why this huge change in human activity occurred at this time and why it had never before happened in human history.

Why do I want to consider this? Because I propose that the very thinking that helped create the IR is what is again needed today to tackle overpopulation. So what was this thinking that led to the IR and why did it never happen before in history?

To do this I would like to look at ancient Egypt, then ancient Greece then medieval England and Europe.

Having abundant harvests due to the Nile River flooding and fertilizing their crops, the Ancient Egyptians were able to gain freedom from full time farming and develop a vibrant culture that still fascinates scholars today. But they needed protection from marauding tribes, which required warlords. Over time these warlords were able to convince the people they were 'god kings' or Pharaohs, a type of living deity on earth. The Egyptians achieved marvelous things under these Pharaohs including building great cities and of course the pyramids. In reality with our modern technology however today these could easily be replicated. The important point however is that the Egyptians were not encouraged to think for themselves. They were required to obey the Pharaohs and the priests who told the people what to think. Thus they were never able to create an IR due to the control of the 'god kings'.

So Egypt remained an agriculture based economy and their population grew only slowly. It is thought to have only grown from around one million to perhaps 4-5million over the entire 3000 year period of the Empire.

Next let's look at ancient Greece, which is regarded as the birthplace of Western Philosophy. Ancient Greece had a type of democracy although it was very hierarchical and they also had slaves with few rights. However it spawned some great thinkers, particularly Socrates and his pupil Plato. Socrates argued, "Few climb out of the cave of ignorance and are ridiculed if they try to help others out." He was concerned with 'Justice' and questioning everyone and everything. Unlike the Egyptians his thinking was not controlled by Pharaohs however, when he criticized what Athens was doing and extolled the virtues of one of their enemies, the elected State Officials did not tolerate him. He was tried for treason and executed. So just as there was no free thinking under the Pharaohs there was no place for free thinking under the elected State in ancient Greece and hence no IR.

Again their economy remained agriculture based and the population of ancient Greece grew only slowly. In fact may have only been around 350,000 people.

Finally, medieval England and Europe where the Church and the Kings working together controlled the people. Unlike the Pharaohs who claimed to be divine the churches claimed to have the only true access to the word of God through the Bible and other religious texts. Again the people were told what to think and although there were advances in weaponry, mathematics and literature, the people had to obey rather than think for themselves. Thus the economies of the time remained largely based on agriculture and again population grew slowly.

However, in the 1600's after the devastating 30-year war that engulfed most of Europe, something happened that had never occurred before in human history. Centuries of mistreatment at the hands of monarchies and the church finally brought a reaction from the people and the most intelligent and vocal decided to speak out and abandon the old 'truths' that had been thrust upon them. One example of this was the strongly held belief by the churches that 'the sun revolved around the earth.' This was disproved by Galilee, who like Socrates was punished for his trouble, although he was put under house arrest rather than being executed.

The new movement has been called 'The Age of Enlightenment'. One of the great leaders of this new movement was René Descartes who gave us the brilliant saying:

'I think therefore I am'.

It may be hard to believe that what on the surface appears to be a simple statement, questioning whether we exist or not, actually paved the way for the Industrial Revolution. It in effect says, 'My mind exists and I can think for myself, (without the church, state or monarchy telling me how to think). I have freedom of thought, I can reason things out for myself'. This shifted the concept of 'What is the Truth,' onto the judgment of the individual. Rather than be told what to think by religious authorities claiming to know what God wants us to think, the responsibility was now put with the individual, 'I am, and no one will control how I think'.

Finally the shackles of the god kings, authoritative state powers, monarchs and the churches, telling people what to think throughout the centuries, had been thrown off. For the first time in history people started to think freely for themselves. This along with democracy paved the way for mans greatest invention, the Industrial Revolution.

Look around you; nearly everything in your home is the result of the IR. It has given us wonderful technology that is still ongoing today. However, on the other hand the world is about to face the downside of this, our greatest invention.

Apart from the comforts for everyday living the IR has resulted in huge breakthroughs in medicine and medical care. In particular antibiotics and well meaning programs in Africa and other developing countries have caused a population explosion. Before this, even in Western societies, people had very large families, as due to high infant mortality rates only a few children made it through to adulthood. Thus out of 10 children only two might have made it into adulthood. Nowadays with better medicine including antibiotics and vaccination programs, most children not only make it through into adulthood, but are also living into old age. However in the developing world people are still having large families and know little about contraception.

Thus we have a population explosion. In 1750 at the start of the IR the world's population is estimated to have been around 1 billion people and had been at that level for many centuries. In a little over 250 years since the start of the IR the world's population has grown to over 7 billion today and is likely to reach over 9 billion in the next 50 years. Recent studies by the United Nations claim some 850 million people are malnourished or starving and over 1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water.

A graph of population growth looks like an "L" backwards with population growing very slowly over the centuries then suddenly taking off around 1750 with the Industrial Revolution.

Not only is the earth overpopulated with pollution from developed countries but also with the recent industrialization of China and India (with Africa likely to follow in the future), we are creating pollution on a scale never seen before.

The results of this are more than evident through environmental degradation. We are faced with:

- Heavily polluted cities
- Deforestation around the world
- Deserts expanding and more frequent droughts
- The greatest extinction of animal species since the dinosaurs
- Recurring famines and suffering in Africa and other developing nations
- Over fishing and depletion of fishing grounds around the world
- Coral bleaching due to run off from rivers from farming

The two main sources that account for nearly 80% of air pollution around the world are; industry 52% and transportation 27%. It has been estimated that electricity generation from coal fired power stations accounts for around 40% of all air pollution. Wind power and other non-polluting power sources are mostly inefficient and costly. We need to re-look at modern nuclear power options but with public paranoia about it, a whole paper could be written on this topic.

So what can be done about the fundamental cause of environmental degradation; overpopulation?

Unfortunately nothing much is being done to stop overpopulation. Many programs were tried in India in the 1960's and 1970's but failed due to cultural problems and women's rights movements. These have been largely abandoned. In China the authorities claim the one child policy has prevented up to 400 million births but independent studies claim the figure is more like 100 million. In any case this policy would not work in a democracy like India.

We think we live in a free world but are we really free to think like Descartes did in the 1600's? Isn't it time to once again throw off the restrictions on our thinking being imposed from many powerful sources and again start to think for ourselves?

So what are we up against?

For a start there is a massive need for education to overcome entrenched beliefs and ignorance in both the developing and developed worlds. Some of the main ones are:

Religious Organizations- Entrenched Beliefs

Oppose contraception.
Oppose the night after pill.
Oppose abortion including early pregnancy abortion.
Preach that God will provide. Believers must abstain from sex or only use the Rhythm method.

At the very least religious organizations need to be made to stop their opposition to contraception. Where in the religious texts does it say, Thou shall not use contraception?

Developing Countries -Education needs:

Need education not to have large families any more.
Need to be made aware they can use contraception.
Need training in what is available and how to use contraception.
Need access to cheap contraception particularly condoms and also IUD's.

Overall they need education and access to cheap contraception particularly condoms which also help to stop the spread of AIDS.

Politicians- Lack of Interest

Want continued economic and jobs growth, which requires population growth.
Don't see any votes in measures to stem population growth.
Don't understand the concept of zero population and economic growth (see later).

Public pressure is needed to put population and environmental concerns as the top priority and that zero population and economic growth is desirable.

Companies - Profits come First

Want growing markets and growing populations to sell more and more products.
Want to be allowed to pollute and destroy the natural environment in order to maximize profits.

They need to be encouraged to become good corporate citizens by minimizing pollution and producing durable products that last.

Developed Countries - Apathy, Fear and the Consumer Society

The general public don't see overpopulation as a major concern and anyway nothing much can be done.
There is fear and opposition to nuclear power for electricity generation.
They don't understand the concept of zero population and economic growth.
They have been 'brainwashed' into thinking that to make them happy, they need more and more consumer goods and the latest models/fashions.

Overall the general public needs to be 'deprogrammed' from the consumer society to know something can be done about population growth and not to fear nuclear power.

Zero Population and Economic Growth:

If we can manage to slow population growth we need to think of the economic consequences. In the future we will need to make quality products that last for as many years as possible rather than 'consumer society products', that look good but only last a short time. Many, if not most products made today, actually have planned obsolescence built in. With slow to zero population growth, not only will producing products that last for many years, stop the wasteful use of the earth's resources, it will be vital, to create employment to maintain and repair these products over many years. So rather than build more and more factories that employ less and less people per factory, if we make products that last a long time, we will create employment that will be needed for repairs and maintenance for these long lasting products. This is probably the only way we can have sustainable slow to zero population and economic growth; producing quality that lasts.

The significance of this cannot be overstated. On the one hand the whole of the western world is geared towards the consumer society and obsolescence of consumer goods and the need to have the latest fashions. On the other hand religious organizations and other groups with vested interests, are totally opposed to birth control necessary to stem population growth.

The list is long and entrenched attitudes will not easily be overcome. Modern humans have been on the Earth some 200,000 years and have so far survived. We have been given the powers of reason and the ability to understand the consequences of our actions. However our modern society is not in harmony with nature and we have overpopulated our planet. Is it not time to arise out of the cave of ignorance and to again start to think for ourselves? We need to get overpopulation and climate change at the top of the agenda. The medium to do this also now exists; the internet.

Where to start on this huge problem? Surely education must come first with five aims:

1) To educate people on the need for population growth reduction.

2) To overcome the huge religious and cultural objections.

3) To convince politicians of the need to stop overpopulation.

4) To advise on the need and educate people to use contraception and the best forms of contraception and to make contraception (particularly condoms and IUD's) easily and freely available in developing countries.

5) To convince everyone of the need for and the sustainability of zero population and economic growth

The controlling powers do not want to change things. Just like in the Age of Enlightenment a ground up movement by the people is required. We need to get people to start to understand the issues involved and start talking about them and lobbying our politicians through Twitter, Facebook and blogs. These days, having computers in the classroom is the norm, but will tablets and iPads also become the norm? They may be just a trend or they could be improvements for the desktop computer. A tablet is similar to a smartphone that has an increased capacity of computers. This may be a reason why they seem to be gaining popularity because with our increasingly mobile society, speed is surely essential. Additionally, the knowledge of how to download different apps needed to accomplish a task can be considered a survival skill in today's world. Even young children have a chance to collaborate and experiment in unique ways, which they will find useful when they grow up.

This can make for a great opportunity for students to get the expertise and confidence they will need. The reason why every student should "own" their own tablet will enhance how much they use it outside the classroom. There are at least three ways in which tablets are used: as an enhanced way of communicating between the teacher, parent and student, as personal organizers, and as a way of team collaboration. The perfect app for a tablet is the personal organizer because you can carry it with you easily and it retains all the functions of text, internet, music, camera and video.

The live video and multimedia apps improves communication between the student, parents and the teacher and because it is at home, it fits into the parents busy schedules. Teachers are able to communicate with the parents easier and the parents can view the student and their work directly, which takes away the burden for the teacher trying to describe certain behaviors. The portability is the key feature and collaboration is enhanced. When a team member gets some inspiration, they can easily communicate it to other team members who will help build on it. This great enhancement is only found in a tablet.

Educators in Zurich, Switzerland at the Zurich International School are very interested in what students create using their tablets, rather than how it is used in curriculum. Many students use their personal tablet for recording experiences and creating videos. By doing this, students have the opportunity to reflect and come up with new insights on ways to improve. For example, students can watch themselves in gym class and see how they can change their routine for the better. Another bonus that has been freely expressed it its ease of input. Ten years ago, Stanford University's Larry Cuban noted that computers were being "oversold and underused" in the classroom.

A modern day analysis is that teachers at that time did not know enough about computers to make effective use of them. As teachers are teamed with tablets and get proper training in how to use them, they will become very effective tools for teaching. Teachers being well trained is very important in this application, because of the ability to can be frustrating to students to manipulate the sophisticated apps. Students will see great strides forward once the teacher is part of the team that supports reflection and creativity. Students who have been given the appropriate support are able to achieve things they never imagined they could previously.

This really is a wonderful contribution. When the teacher to student ratio is balanced well, and the funds are there to support it, the iPad will make a great resource. I Pads and tablets can be found more often in private schools because teacher training and monetary support has been much more difficult to get in public schools.
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