22/05/2019

How to Overcome Overpopulation in Health

Forgetfulness often disturbs our mind at one point of time or other. Information does not come to our mind when we want it badly. While we are doing certain task suddenly we remember that something we have to do in the kitchen. When we are in the kitchen we simply forget what we have to do and feel stupefied and helpless. While we have a saunter we come across a good friend but don't remember his name however hard we think. While we are writing an examination we just don't remember that one important point. The other day when I helped myself a cup of tea, I was stirring and stirring the tea for a while and realized that there was no sugar only after having the first sip. Last week I had to discuss with a friend whose office is at the 20th floor. After the discussion I left his office and had to use the stairs as the elevator was not working. On reaching the 1st floor I remembered I left my phone at the office and had to climb up all the 20 flights of the stairs. There are numerous examples of forgetfulness like these. Why do we forget? Can we avoid forgetfulness? Is forgetfulness an inherent weakness in the design of our mind?

Forgetfulness is often forgetting things which we should remember. In general, people forget more and more as time passes. We find it difficult to retrieve from our memory the name of an old friend whom we have not seen for long. If we meet a friend often we generally will not forget that friend's name. Each time we meet the friend the memory is reinforced. So something is happening in our brain when we see a person or a thing often. Repetition enables us to remember things for a longer or life time. While we have a saunter we come across so many people whom we forget quickly. The memory may last for only a few seconds. It seems brain deletes information which is not important and stores information which is important. How does the brain know that? We will have to inform the brain. How do we inform the brain? We have to actively think about the information in order to store it in our brain. The more we actively think about it the more it lasts in our memory. What if we want to forget a person or an event? It is equivalent to thinking actively about a person or an event. Therefore, we will never be able to forget that person or event. It seems we have to actively think about other persons or events so that in due course we might forget what we consider not important. So far we have found two reasons for forgetfulness. One reason is that we don't give importance. The second reason is that we don't actively think about the thing we want to remember (the second follows from the first). Sometimes we forget things even though we give importance to and actively think about them. Consider the example of writing an examination. Why do we forget that one important point?

Writing an examination requires long term memory. It involves a huge amount of information, some of which lasts a lifetime. Information enters long term memory as a result of either of two factors: (1) repetition or (2) intense emotion. We do several readings before the examination in order to remember the maximum number of points. Yet, we forget that one important point. Scientists know little about what happens in the brain when it stores memories. However, storing new memories seems to involve both chemical changes in the nerve cells of the brain and changes in their physical structure. Research indicates that these chemical and physical changes occur in a tiny section of the brain called the hippocampus when a person stores new memories. The hippocampus is part of a larger structure called the cerebral cortex, which controls many higher brain functions. When we learn one material and move on to learn another material, the first learned material may initially block the learning of the second material. Once we think actively and learned the second material it may block the remembering of the previously learned material. Scientists call this phenomenon as interference. When the previously learned material hampers the remembering of new material, the hampering process is called proactive interference or proactive inhibition. Likewise, when the learning of new material hampers the remembering of the previously learned material the hampering process is called retroactive interference or retroactive inhibition. Sometimes, you may be able to remember effortlessly that one important point after the examination is over. Such temporary loss of memory, which occurs frequently, is called retrieval failure. Memory experts believe that people can, with practice, increase their ability to remember. One of the most important means of improving memory is the use of mental aids called mnemonic devices. They are memory aids that include rhymes, clues, mental pictures, and other methods. To use mnemonic devices, you must first learn them and often invent them. After learning a mnemonic device, however, you can use it at any time you wish.

Our brain is capable of executing a procedure without our conscious or active involvement. If you drive your car in a particular route everyday then you know effortlessly when to take left and when to take right. Similarly, making a cup of tea is a standard procedure which we do it every day. But when you change the sequence of activities then you have to relearn the new procedure. Until you master the new procedure the previous procedure will interfere with the new one. That is why I was stirring and stirring the tea thinking that I had already put the sugar. I call this phenomenon phantom execution: it is a situation in that the execution of an activity happens only in the mind of the executor and the feeling of the executor that the work has actually been done. Many people experience phantom execution not only in domestic works but also in corporate works. In corporate world, this phenomenon calls for interlocking system where manual work or both manual and machine works are involved. Why does our brain switch over to automatic mode when we execute a routine work? It could be our brain's efficiency of optimum use of energy and its ability to perform multiple tasking.

Consider the example of my kitchen discomfiture. It seems our brain is capable of alarming us to execute a to-do-list of activities. It means our brain has an internal clock work system. We know little about how far this internal clock work system synchronizes with the actual clock time. The flash in my mind that I had to perform a certain task in the kitchen while I was doing some other work is the proof that the brain is capable of alarming us. At what time the alarm comes to our mind needs an internal clock work system. Why didn't the alarm remind me once I was in the kitchen even though I tried so hard? Is that my brain was still actively involved in my previous work and the previous material was hampering my new work (proactive inhibition)? Or, is that the brain does not remind you twice? I think the brain is not so harsh on us. The reason should most probably be proactive inhibition. Cognitive load must have messed up with the internal alarm system of the brain.

The amount of information entering our consciousness at any instant is referred to as our cognitive load. When our cognitive load exceeds the capacity of our working memory, our intellectual abilities take a hit. Information zips into and out of our mind so quickly that we never gain a good mental grip on it (Nicholas Carr, on Cognitive load in 'This Will Make You Smarter,' 2012).

Working memory is what brain scientists call the short-term store of information where we hold the contents of our consciousness at any moment. They also believe that the storing capacity of working memory area is finite and limited. In the 1950s, Princeton psychologist George Miller famously argued that our brains can hold only about seven pieces of information simultaneously. Some brain researchers now believe that working memory has a maximum capacity of just three or four elements.

The brain's many structures are networks of neurons. Each structure makes connections with other brain structures. Information flow back and forth through the connections and allow brain structures to work together to create sophisticated perceptions, thoughts, and behaviors. The human brain has about 100 billion neurons. Each neuron consists of a cell body and a number of tubes like fibers. The longest fiber, called the axon, carries nerve impulses from the cell body to other neurons. Short, branching fibers called dendrites pick up impulses from the axons of other neurons and transmit them to the cell body. The point where any branch of one neuron transmits a nerve impulse to a branch of another neuron is called a synapse. Each neuron may form synapses with thousands of other nerve cells. This system implies the flow of information is unidirectional. Some axons have a coating of fatty material called myelin. The myelin insulates the fiber and speeds the transmission of impulses along its surface. Myelin is white, and tightly packed axons covered with it form white matter. The neuron cell bodies and the axons without myelin sheaths make up the grey matter of the brain. The cerebral cortex is made up of grey matter, and most of the rest of the cerebrum consists of white matter.

The cerebrum makes up about 85 per cent of the weight of the human brain. A thin layer of nerve cell bodies called the cerebral cortex or cortex forms the outermost part of the cerebrum. Most of the cerebrum beneath the cortex consists of nerve cell fibers. Some of these fibers connect parts of the cortex. Others link the cortex with the cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord. A fissure divides the cerebrum into halves called the left cerebral hemisphere and the right cerebral hemisphere. The hemispheres are connected by bunches of nerve fibers, the largest of which is the corpus callosum. Each hemisphere, in turn, is divided into four lobes. They are (1) the frontal lobe; (2) the temporal lobe, at the lower side; (3) the parietal lobe, in the middle; and (4) the occipital lobe, at the rear. These lobes have distinct domains of functioning, although in practice there is a great deal of interaction between them.

Broadly speaking, the occipital lobes are mainly concerned with visual processing. In fact, they are subdivided into as many as thirty distinct processing regions; each partially specialized for a different aspect of vision such as color, motion, and form.

The temporal lobes are specialized for higher perceptual functions, such as recognizing faces and other objects and linking them to appropriate emotions. They do this latter job in close cooperation with a structure called the amygdale, which lies in the front ties of the temporal lobes. Also tucked away beneath each temporal lobe is the hippocampus, which lays down new memory traces. In addition to all this, the upper part of the left temporal lobe contains a patch of cortex known as Wernicke's area. In humans this area has ballooned to seven times the size of the same area in chimpanzees; it is one of the few brain areas that can be safely declared unique to our species. Its job is nothing less than the comprehension of meaning and semantic aspects of language - functions that are prime differentiators between human beings and mere apes.

The parietal lobes are primarily involved in processing touch, muscle, and joint information from the body and combining it with vision, hearing, and balance to give you a rich 'multimedia' understanding of your corporeal self and world around it. The parietal lobes have expanded greatly in human evolution, but no part of them has grown more than the inferior parietal lobules. So great was the expansion that at some point in our past a large portion of it split into two new processing regions called the angular gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus. These uniquely human areas house some truly quintessential human abilities. The left angular gyrus is involved in important functions unique to humans such as arithmetic, abstraction, and aspects of language such as word finding and metaphor. The left supramarginal gyrus, on the other hand, conjures up a vivid image of intended skilled actions - for example, sewing with a needle, hammering a nail, or waving goodbye - and executes them.

The frontal lobes also perform several distinct and vital functions. Part of this region the motor cortex is involved in issuing simple motor commands. Other parts are involved in planning actions and keeping goals in mind long enough to follow through on them. There is another small part of the frontal lobe that is required for holding things in memory long enough to know what to attend to. This faculty is called working memory or short-term memory.

Therefore, we can infer that certain parts of the frontal lobes are involved in the to-do-list of activities. The alarm system must have signaled the frontal lobes at appropriate time for an appropriate action (kitchen example). The appropriate action is sent to the working memory area for processing the information; the information is either a visual or verbal image. As I have already been involved in another task, the working memory area is fully loaded with information. The working memory area (WMA) now has to accommodate the alarm information which is urgent in nature. The WMA either has to delete certain existing information or has some extra space to accommodate information for urgent work, as WMA can hold only limited number of information. There is a possibility that the alarm information and the already existing information in the WMA must have been messed up and a partial message is processed which is enough to urge me to go to the kitchen. While in the kitchen the WMA is still fully engaged in the other activity and the alarm information is deleted from the memory. Normally one image will trigger another image and the second image will trigger a third image and so on until the brain groups all these images into meaningful information. In the kitchen case, the first image could not trigger a second image and I stood baffled. So, what is the solution? It is better to sit down in the kitchen (it is easier to bring back the kitchen information in the kitchen itself) and disengage all the activities. Think one by one the activities you do in the kitchen. Probably, within minutes, you will be able to recollect the information you temporarily lost.

The causes for forgetfulness are many and they depend upon the situation. The reason for not remembering the name of an old friend is we didn't assign importance to that person and therefore haven't actively thought about that person for long. The reason for climbing up all 20 flights of the stairs to pick my phone is procedural lapse. We leave our cell phones wherever we go. If we keep the phone at a particular place we will always remember where it will be found. Otherwise, our brain will have to process all the spots chronologically to find finally where we left the phone. The brain will be wasting a lot of energy doing that complicated process. When you go out, remember the things you carry and actively think where you keep those things so that you can always get your things back. After visiting a place, check whether you have all the things you carried with you before leaving that place. You can save a lot of energy and time! The reason for forgetting that one important point in the examination is retrieval failure. You can use some mnemonic devices such as rhyme, acronym, or something which you can invent yourself. First memorize the mnemonic device then associate all the points to the device and then repeat the second process several times till you master it. The reason for not remembering what you have to do in the kitchen is cognitive load. You just sit down, disengage all thoughts in your mind, and actively think about all the activities you do in the kitchen. You will retrieve the information you wanted.

Our brain is evolving and will continue to evolve in the future. That is why our brain has certain unique features which the other organisms do not have. Our brain has certain limitations also. Our eyes are not telescopic; we are not good at echolocation as bats are; our smell organ is not as good as a dog's. On several accounts we are weaker than many other organisms. Our weaknesses are sometimes blissful or rather that is what we desired. If our eyes are microscopic we will not be able to eat food and if our eyes are telescopic we will never have privacy. Similarly, forgetfulness is sometimes good and sometimes bad. It is part of the game of life. Perhaps, in the future we may see things which are far away. But we do not know how our brain will find the way. It could be the telescopic eyes or the astral projection. If evolution has to go at faster pace, I think, we have to change our attitudes. Only evolution can tell us the truth. While we live with our inherent weaknesses, we can use our brain and solve our human-made weaknesses.
Wales, a popular destination in the British education industry is also the mother of the first ever Britain University, that was conceived by St. Illtud in the 6th century on the coast of Vale of Glamorgan in South Wales. Inheriting one of the finest universities, Wales offers world-class education and placements all across the globe. Apart from just being a renowned name there are various other reasons why most of Indian students aspire to study in Wales. Here are they-

#1 Wide range of Excellent courses-

Apart from pursuing programs, studying in any university of Wales provides you with numerous career options especially, for those looking for diversified courses in any and every field. Along with excellent career options in multiple fields, Wales is also renowned for its language, history, exquisite landscape and science innovation that make the study experience all the more exciting and rewarding.

#2 Diversified crowd from all across the globe-

More than 11000 thousand students enroll themselves for higher education in Wales out of which more than 1100 students are from abroad and 2000 from India. Having once in a lifetime experience and getting globally connected at one place is another reason why maximum students from Asia and UAE and other parts of the world look for higher education options in Wales. These statistics not only provide information on Wales popularity in terms of pursuing higher education abroad but also give a clear picture about why international students prefer Wales to other higher study destinations.

#3 World's Education Hub-

There are more than 11 universities offering higher education in Wales along with 30 centers of excellence, 91+ departments acquiring 4 star in research and 66 departments rewarded for best teaching quality.

#4 Treasured Experience and Incalculable Confidence-

Studying in Wales does not only offer you the finest education but also evangelize you in a refined human being. Interacting with people from all around the world makes you informed and the increased communication incorporates a lot of confidence and interpersonal skills in every individual. Having a practice of studying with all kinds of people from the planet gives impeccable experience for a lifetime that brings the introvert out of you and ripe you for the future challenges of life.

#5 Enhanced quality of Life and Respect-

Every aspirant who wants to study in Wales knows that welsh education is globally recognized by the employers and various academic institutions. Having said that, surveys have showcased that the students passed from any of the Wales university enjoy a better quality of life and respect than any other parts of UK which clearly shows how Wales universities counterparts all other UK universities.

However, on the contrary the expenses of higher education abroad is another major concern for most Indian students. Therefore, having a sound back up before aspiring to study in Wales is a crucial element for every student. Perhaps, the incalculable experience and opportunities that come your way after getting a certification from a renowned Wales university is incomparable and makes a once in a lifetime opportunity.

With a keen eye on Indian as well as global education scenarios, Ishani Yadav has been penning her own insights into industry with an underline on education in abroad niche. Here comes an article authored by her where she throws some light on how study in Wales is a world class experience.
We are starting to hear more and more concerns about climate change. There are calls to try to limit carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels and even the need to manage climate change when it happens. But I propose that climate change science is very uncertain. The earth's climate is constantly changing between hot ages and ice ages. However the extent to which it is occurring is very much linked to population growth. Rather than get bogged down in arguments about climate change I want to examine something that is undeniable; Overpopulation. Time is running out. The most fundamental problem facing the world today is overpopulation leading to pollution and degradation of the earth's environment on a massive scale.

There are a number of critical reasons why our leaders are not prepared to tackle overpopulation and even if they want to, it all seems too hard to solve. To understand how we got to this situation, I would like to take a brief look at history then consider what is stopping us from really doing something practical about it. If we don't the alternative will be catastrophic, as nature will decide the issue for us the hard way, most likely through droughts, floods and famines.

So let's go back to very early times when tribes of hunters and gatherers roamed the world. The furthest we can go back and understand how our ancestors really lived with any degree of certainty is probably around 50,000 years. In the case of Australian Aborigines and other hunters and gatherers around the world, it is thought their customs and beliefs changed little over time, so a lot of information has been collected about their lifestyles and spiritual beliefs. For instance it is known that the Australian Aborigines have always been a highly spiritual people with an extremely strong affinity to the land and animals they needed for food. They managed the land through the use of fire to encourage new growth of plants and trees, so the animals they hunted could thrive. When burning off they even left pathways so the animals could move away from the fire.

Being excellent bushmen they usually spent part of each day hunting and gathering which left plenty of time for their rituals, dancing and story telling about the 'dreamtime'. They were very much into sharing food within each tribe. For example, if one member caught a kangaroo one day another might catch one the next day. So sharing was very important for survival. It seems they were content with their lot and didn't need to develop their "economic system" further in terms of crops and farming. Nor did they see any need for permanent homes (apart from the use of caves) or the need to create stone monuments to honour their spirits.

Thus, theirs was a simple life lived in harmony with the land and nature. When the first white settlers arrived in Australia there was no pollution and if left alone it is likely the Aborigines could have carried on with their lifestyle for many more thousands of years. I have used the Australian Aborigines as one example. Similarly hunters and gatherers in many other parts of the world carried on for thousands of years in harmony with their environments had they not met with what we call civilization.

This is extremely important because we have to ask if the modern civilized, industrialized world, can carry on for thousands of years into the future the way we are going at present with overpopulation, pollution and degradation of environments around the world?

So from the ancient tribes people living in harmony with their environment I want to briefly examine how we got to where we are in today's modern world and what we must do to survive with an acceptable lifestyle in the future

Overpopulation that has led to pollution and degradation of the environment is a direct result of The Industrial Revolution. This is generally considered to have begun in England around 1750 and quickly spread around the rest of the world. For the first time in human history factories were able to manufacture mass-produced goods and people started to have a standard of living that could not have been previously imagined. Unfortunately the factories created three things; a mass movement of people to the cities, an explosion in population growth and pollution on a scale never seen before. This has expanded and continued growing rapidly to the present day.

But I would like to go back before the Industrial Revolution (from here on the IR) and consider why this huge change in human activity occurred at this time and why it had never before happened in human history.

Why do I want to consider this? Because I propose that the very thinking that helped create the IR is what is again needed today to tackle overpopulation. So what was this thinking that led to the IR and why did it never happen before in history?

To do this I would like to look at ancient Egypt, then ancient Greece then medieval England and Europe.

Having abundant harvests due to the Nile River flooding and fertilizing their crops, the Ancient Egyptians were able to gain freedom from full time farming and develop a vibrant culture that still fascinates scholars today. But they needed protection from marauding tribes, which required warlords. Over time these warlords were able to convince the people they were 'god kings' or Pharaohs, a type of living deity on earth. The Egyptians achieved marvelous things under these Pharaohs including building great cities and of course the pyramids. In reality with our modern technology however today these could easily be replicated. The important point however is that the Egyptians were not encouraged to think for themselves. They were required to obey the Pharaohs and the priests who told the people what to think. Thus they were never able to create an IR due to the control of the 'god kings'.

So Egypt remained an agriculture based economy and their population grew only slowly. It is thought to have only grown from around one million to perhaps 4-5million over the entire 3000 year period of the Empire.

Next let's look at ancient Greece, which is regarded as the birthplace of Western Philosophy. Ancient Greece had a type of democracy although it was very hierarchical and they also had slaves with few rights. However it spawned some great thinkers, particularly Socrates and his pupil Plato. Socrates argued, "Few climb out of the cave of ignorance and are ridiculed if they try to help others out." He was concerned with 'Justice' and questioning everyone and everything. Unlike the Egyptians his thinking was not controlled by Pharaohs however, when he criticized what Athens was doing and extolled the virtues of one of their enemies, the elected State Officials did not tolerate him. He was tried for treason and executed. So just as there was no free thinking under the Pharaohs there was no place for free thinking under the elected State in ancient Greece and hence no IR.

Again their economy remained agriculture based and the population of ancient Greece grew only slowly. In fact may have only been around 350,000 people.

Finally, medieval England and Europe where the Church and the Kings working together controlled the people. Unlike the Pharaohs who claimed to be divine the churches claimed to have the only true access to the word of God through the Bible and other religious texts. Again the people were told what to think and although there were advances in weaponry, mathematics and literature, the people had to obey rather than think for themselves. Thus the economies of the time remained largely based on agriculture and again population grew slowly.

However, in the 1600's after the devastating 30-year war that engulfed most of Europe, something happened that had never occurred before in human history. Centuries of mistreatment at the hands of monarchies and the church finally brought a reaction from the people and the most intelligent and vocal decided to speak out and abandon the old 'truths' that had been thrust upon them. One example of this was the strongly held belief by the churches that 'the sun revolved around the earth.' This was disproved by Galilee, who like Socrates was punished for his trouble, although he was put under house arrest rather than being executed.

The new movement has been called 'The Age of Enlightenment'. One of the great leaders of this new movement was René Descartes who gave us the brilliant saying:

'I think therefore I am'.

It may be hard to believe that what on the surface appears to be a simple statement, questioning whether we exist or not, actually paved the way for the Industrial Revolution. It in effect says, 'My mind exists and I can think for myself, (without the church, state or monarchy telling me how to think). I have freedom of thought, I can reason things out for myself'. This shifted the concept of 'What is the Truth,' onto the judgment of the individual. Rather than be told what to think by religious authorities claiming to know what God wants us to think, the responsibility was now put with the individual, 'I am, and no one will control how I think'.

Finally the shackles of the god kings, authoritative state powers, monarchs and the churches, telling people what to think throughout the centuries, had been thrown off. For the first time in history people started to think freely for themselves. This along with democracy paved the way for mans greatest invention, the Industrial Revolution.

Look around you; nearly everything in your home is the result of the IR. It has given us wonderful technology that is still ongoing today. However, on the other hand the world is about to face the downside of this, our greatest invention.

Apart from the comforts for everyday living the IR has resulted in huge breakthroughs in medicine and medical care. In particular antibiotics and well meaning programs in Africa and other developing countries have caused a population explosion. Before this, even in Western societies, people had very large families, as due to high infant mortality rates only a few children made it through to adulthood. Thus out of 10 children only two might have made it into adulthood. Nowadays with better medicine including antibiotics and vaccination programs, most children not only make it through into adulthood, but are also living into old age. However in the developing world people are still having large families and know little about contraception.

Thus we have a population explosion. In 1750 at the start of the IR the world's population is estimated to have been around 1 billion people and had been at that level for many centuries. In a little over 250 years since the start of the IR the world's population has grown to over 7 billion today and is likely to reach over 9 billion in the next 50 years. Recent studies by the United Nations claim some 850 million people are malnourished or starving and over 1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water.

A graph of population growth looks like an "L" backwards with population growing very slowly over the centuries then suddenly taking off around 1750 with the Industrial Revolution.

Not only is the earth overpopulated with pollution from developed countries but also with the recent industrialization of China and India (with Africa likely to follow in the future), we are creating pollution on a scale never seen before.

The results of this are more than evident through environmental degradation. We are faced with:

- Heavily polluted cities
- Deforestation around the world
- Deserts expanding and more frequent droughts
- The greatest extinction of animal species since the dinosaurs
- Recurring famines and suffering in Africa and other developing nations
- Over fishing and depletion of fishing grounds around the world
- Coral bleaching due to run off from rivers from farming

The two main sources that account for nearly 80% of air pollution around the world are; industry 52% and transportation 27%. It has been estimated that electricity generation from coal fired power stations accounts for around 40% of all air pollution. Wind power and other non-polluting power sources are mostly inefficient and costly. We need to re-look at modern nuclear power options but with public paranoia about it, a whole paper could be written on this topic.

So what can be done about the fundamental cause of environmental degradation; overpopulation?

Unfortunately nothing much is being done to stop overpopulation. Many programs were tried in India in the 1960's and 1970's but failed due to cultural problems and women's rights movements. These have been largely abandoned. In China the authorities claim the one child policy has prevented up to 400 million births but independent studies claim the figure is more like 100 million. In any case this policy would not work in a democracy like India.

We think we live in a free world but are we really free to think like Descartes did in the 1600's? Isn't it time to once again throw off the restrictions on our thinking being imposed from many powerful sources and again start to think for ourselves?

So what are we up against?

For a start there is a massive need for education to overcome entrenched beliefs and ignorance in both the developing and developed worlds. Some of the main ones are:

Religious Organizations- Entrenched Beliefs

Oppose contraception.
Oppose the night after pill.
Oppose abortion including early pregnancy abortion.
Preach that God will provide. Believers must abstain from sex or only use the Rhythm method.

At the very least religious organizations need to be made to stop their opposition to contraception. Where in the religious texts does it say, Thou shall not use contraception?

Developing Countries -Education needs:

Need education not to have large families any more.
Need to be made aware they can use contraception.
Need training in what is available and how to use contraception.
Need access to cheap contraception particularly condoms and also IUD's.

Overall they need education and access to cheap contraception particularly condoms which also help to stop the spread of AIDS.

Politicians- Lack of Interest

Want continued economic and jobs growth, which requires population growth.
Don't see any votes in measures to stem population growth.
Don't understand the concept of zero population and economic growth (see later).

Public pressure is needed to put population and environmental concerns as the top priority and that zero population and economic growth is desirable.

Companies - Profits come First

Want growing markets and growing populations to sell more and more products.
Want to be allowed to pollute and destroy the natural environment in order to maximize profits.

They need to be encouraged to become good corporate citizens by minimizing pollution and producing durable products that last.

Developed Countries - Apathy, Fear and the Consumer Society

The general public don't see overpopulation as a major concern and anyway nothing much can be done.
There is fear and opposition to nuclear power for electricity generation.
They don't understand the concept of zero population and economic growth.
They have been 'brainwashed' into thinking that to make them happy, they need more and more consumer goods and the latest models/fashions.

Overall the general public needs to be 'deprogrammed' from the consumer society to know something can be done about population growth and not to fear nuclear power.

Zero Population and Economic Growth:

If we can manage to slow population growth we need to think of the economic consequences. In the future we will need to make quality products that last for as many years as possible rather than 'consumer society products', that look good but only last a short time. Many, if not most products made today, actually have planned obsolescence built in. With slow to zero population growth, not only will producing products that last for many years, stop the wasteful use of the earth's resources, it will be vital, to create employment to maintain and repair these products over many years. So rather than build more and more factories that employ less and less people per factory, if we make products that last a long time, we will create employment that will be needed for repairs and maintenance for these long lasting products. This is probably the only way we can have sustainable slow to zero population and economic growth; producing quality that lasts.

The significance of this cannot be overstated. On the one hand the whole of the western world is geared towards the consumer society and obsolescence of consumer goods and the need to have the latest fashions. On the other hand religious organizations and other groups with vested interests, are totally opposed to birth control necessary to stem population growth.

The list is long and entrenched attitudes will not easily be overcome. Modern humans have been on the Earth some 200,000 years and have so far survived. We have been given the powers of reason and the ability to understand the consequences of our actions. However our modern society is not in harmony with nature and we have overpopulated our planet. Is it not time to arise out of the cave of ignorance and to again start to think for ourselves? We need to get overpopulation and climate change at the top of the agenda. The medium to do this also now exists; the internet.
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We are starting to hear more and more concerns about climate change. There are calls to try to limit carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels and even the need to manage climate change when it happens. But I propose that climate change science is very uncertain. The earth's climate is constantly changing between hot ages and ice ages. However the extent to which it is occurring is very much linked to population growth. Rather than get bogged down in arguments about climate change I want to examine something that is undeniable; Overpopulation. Time is running out. The most fundamental problem facing the world today is overpopulation leading to pollution and degradation of the earth's environment on a massive scale.

There are a number of critical reasons why our leaders are not prepared to tackle overpopulation and even if they want to, it all seems too hard to solve. To understand how we got to this situation, I would like to take a brief look at history then consider what is stopping us from really doing something practical about it. If we don't the alternative will be catastrophic, as nature will decide the issue for us the hard way, most likely through droughts, floods and famines.

So let's go back to very early times when tribes of hunters and gatherers roamed the world. The furthest we can go back and understand how our ancestors really lived with any degree of certainty is probably around 50,000 years. In the case of Australian Aborigines and other hunters and gatherers around the world, it is thought their customs and beliefs changed little over time, so a lot of information has been collected about their lifestyles and spiritual beliefs. For instance it is known that the Australian Aborigines have always been a highly spiritual people with an extremely strong affinity to the land and animals they needed for food. They managed the land through the use of fire to encourage new growth of plants and trees, so the animals they hunted could thrive. When burning off they even left pathways so the animals could move away from the fire.

Being excellent bushmen they usually spent part of each day hunting and gathering which left plenty of time for their rituals, dancing and story telling about the 'dreamtime'. They were very much into sharing food within each tribe. For example, if one member caught a kangaroo one day another might catch one the next day. So sharing was very important for survival. It seems they were content with their lot and didn't need to develop their "economic system" further in terms of crops and farming. Nor did they see any need for permanent homes (apart from the use of caves) or the need to create stone monuments to honour their spirits.

Thus, theirs was a simple life lived in harmony with the land and nature. When the first white settlers arrived in Australia there was no pollution and if left alone it is likely the Aborigines could have carried on with their lifestyle for many more thousands of years. I have used the Australian Aborigines as one example. Similarly hunters and gatherers in many other parts of the world carried on for thousands of years in harmony with their environments had they not met with what we call civilization.

This is extremely important because we have to ask if the modern civilized, industrialized world, can carry on for thousands of years into the future the way we are going at present with overpopulation, pollution and degradation of environments around the world?

So from the ancient tribes people living in harmony with their environment I want to briefly examine how we got to where we are in today's modern world and what we must do to survive with an acceptable lifestyle in the future

Overpopulation that has led to pollution and degradation of the environment is a direct result of The Industrial Revolution. This is generally considered to have begun in England around 1750 and quickly spread around the rest of the world. For the first time in human history factories were able to manufacture mass-produced goods and people started to have a standard of living that could not have been previously imagined. Unfortunately the factories created three things; a mass movement of people to the cities, an explosion in population growth and pollution on a scale never seen before. This has expanded and continued growing rapidly to the present day.

But I would like to go back before the Industrial Revolution (from here on the IR) and consider why this huge change in human activity occurred at this time and why it had never before happened in human history.

Why do I want to consider this? Because I propose that the very thinking that helped create the IR is what is again needed today to tackle overpopulation. So what was this thinking that led to the IR and why did it never happen before in history?

To do this I would like to look at ancient Egypt, then ancient Greece then medieval England and Europe.

Having abundant harvests due to the Nile River flooding and fertilizing their crops, the Ancient Egyptians were able to gain freedom from full time farming and develop a vibrant culture that still fascinates scholars today. But they needed protection from marauding tribes, which required warlords. Over time these warlords were able to convince the people they were 'god kings' or Pharaohs, a type of living deity on earth. The Egyptians achieved marvelous things under these Pharaohs including building great cities and of course the pyramids. In reality with our modern technology however today these could easily be replicated. The important point however is that the Egyptians were not encouraged to think for themselves. They were required to obey the Pharaohs and the priests who told the people what to think. Thus they were never able to create an IR due to the control of the 'god kings'.

So Egypt remained an agriculture based economy and their population grew only slowly. It is thought to have only grown from around one million to perhaps 4-5million over the entire 3000 year period of the Empire.

Next let's look at ancient Greece, which is regarded as the birthplace of Western Philosophy. Ancient Greece had a type of democracy although it was very hierarchical and they also had slaves with few rights. However it spawned some great thinkers, particularly Socrates and his pupil Plato. Socrates argued, "Few climb out of the cave of ignorance and are ridiculed if they try to help others out." He was concerned with 'Justice' and questioning everyone and everything. Unlike the Egyptians his thinking was not controlled by Pharaohs however, when he criticized what Athens was doing and extolled the virtues of one of their enemies, the elected State Officials did not tolerate him. He was tried for treason and executed. So just as there was no free thinking under the Pharaohs there was no place for free thinking under the elected State in ancient Greece and hence no IR.

Again their economy remained agriculture based and the population of ancient Greece grew only slowly. In fact may have only been around 350,000 people.

Finally, medieval England and Europe where the Church and the Kings working together controlled the people. Unlike the Pharaohs who claimed to be divine the churches claimed to have the only true access to the word of God through the Bible and other religious texts. Again the people were told what to think and although there were advances in weaponry, mathematics and literature, the people had to obey rather than think for themselves. Thus the economies of the time remained largely based on agriculture and again population grew slowly.

However, in the 1600's after the devastating 30-year war that engulfed most of Europe, something happened that had never occurred before in human history. Centuries of mistreatment at the hands of monarchies and the church finally brought a reaction from the people and the most intelligent and vocal decided to speak out and abandon the old 'truths' that had been thrust upon them. One example of this was the strongly held belief by the churches that 'the sun revolved around the earth.' This was disproved by Galilee, who like Socrates was punished for his trouble, although he was put under house arrest rather than being executed.

The new movement has been called 'The Age of Enlightenment'. One of the great leaders of this new movement was René Descartes who gave us the brilliant saying:

'I think therefore I am'.

It may be hard to believe that what on the surface appears to be a simple statement, questioning whether we exist or not, actually paved the way for the Industrial Revolution. It in effect says, 'My mind exists and I can think for myself, (without the church, state or monarchy telling me how to think). I have freedom of thought, I can reason things out for myself'. This shifted the concept of 'What is the Truth,' onto the judgment of the individual. Rather than be told what to think by religious authorities claiming to know what God wants us to think, the responsibility was now put with the individual, 'I am, and no one will control how I think'.

Finally the shackles of the god kings, authoritative state powers, monarchs and the churches, telling people what to think throughout the centuries, had been thrown off. For the first time in history people started to think freely for themselves. This along with democracy paved the way for mans greatest invention, the Industrial Revolution.

Look around you; nearly everything in your home is the result of the IR. It has given us wonderful technology that is still ongoing today. However, on the other hand the world is about to face the downside of this, our greatest invention.

Apart from the comforts for everyday living the IR has resulted in huge breakthroughs in medicine and medical care. In particular antibiotics and well meaning programs in Africa and other developing countries have caused a population explosion. Before this, even in Western societies, people had very large families, as due to high infant mortality rates only a few children made it through to adulthood. Thus out of 10 children only two might have made it into adulthood. Nowadays with better medicine including antibiotics and vaccination programs, most children not only make it through into adulthood, but are also living into old age. However in the developing world people are still having large families and know little about contraception.

Thus we have a population explosion. In 1750 at the start of the IR the world's population is estimated to have been around 1 billion people and had been at that level for many centuries. In a little over 250 years since the start of the IR the world's population has grown to over 7 billion today and is likely to reach over 9 billion in the next 50 years. Recent studies by the United Nations claim some 850 million people are malnourished or starving and over 1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water.

A graph of population growth looks like an "L" backwards with population growing very slowly over the centuries then suddenly taking off around 1750 with the Industrial Revolution.

Not only is the earth overpopulated with pollution from developed countries but also with the recent industrialization of China and India (with Africa likely to follow in the future), we are creating pollution on a scale never seen before.

The results of this are more than evident through environmental degradation. We are faced with:

- Heavily polluted cities
- Deforestation around the world
- Deserts expanding and more frequent droughts
- The greatest extinction of animal species since the dinosaurs
- Recurring famines and suffering in Africa and other developing nations
- Over fishing and depletion of fishing grounds around the world
- Coral bleaching due to run off from rivers from farming

The two main sources that account for nearly 80% of air pollution around the world are; industry 52% and transportation 27%. It has been estimated that electricity generation from coal fired power stations accounts for around 40% of all air pollution. Wind power and other non-polluting power sources are mostly inefficient and costly. We need to re-look at modern nuclear power options but with public paranoia about it, a whole paper could be written on this topic.

So what can be done about the fundamental cause of environmental degradation; overpopulation?

Unfortunately nothing much is being done to stop overpopulation. Many programs were tried in India in the 1960's and 1970's but failed due to cultural problems and women's rights movements. These have been largely abandoned. In China the authorities claim the one child policy has prevented up to 400 million births but independent studies claim the figure is more like 100 million. In any case this policy would not work in a democracy like India.

We think we live in a free world but are we really free to think like Descartes did in the 1600's? Isn't it time to once again throw off the restrictions on our thinking being imposed from many powerful sources and again start to think for ourselves?

So what are we up against?

For a start there is a massive need for education to overcome entrenched beliefs and ignorance in both the developing and developed worlds. Some of the main ones are:

Religious Organizations- Entrenched Beliefs

Oppose contraception.
Oppose the night after pill.
Oppose abortion including early pregnancy abortion.
Preach that God will provide. Believers must abstain from sex or only use the Rhythm method.

At the very least religious organizations need to be made to stop their opposition to contraception. Where in the religious texts does it say, Thou shall not use contraception?

Developing Countries -Education needs:

Need education not to have large families any more.
Need to be made aware they can use contraception.
Need training in what is available and how to use contraception.
Need access to cheap contraception particularly condoms and also IUD's.

Overall they need education and access to cheap contraception particularly condoms which also help to stop the spread of AIDS.

Politicians- Lack of Interest

Want continued economic and jobs growth, which requires population growth.
Don't see any votes in measures to stem population growth.
Don't understand the concept of zero population and economic growth (see later).

Public pressure is needed to put population and environmental concerns as the top priority and that zero population and economic growth is desirable.

Companies - Profits come First

Want growing markets and growing populations to sell more and more products.
Want to be allowed to pollute and destroy the natural environment in order to maximize profits.

They need to be encouraged to become good corporate citizens by minimizing pollution and producing durable products that last.

Developed Countries - Apathy, Fear and the Consumer Society

The general public don't see overpopulation as a major concern and anyway nothing much can be done.
There is fear and opposition to nuclear power for electricity generation.
They don't understand the concept of zero population and economic growth.
They have been 'brainwashed' into thinking that to make them happy, they need more and more consumer goods and the latest models/fashions.

Overall the general public needs to be 'deprogrammed' from the consumer society to know something can be done about population growth and not to fear nuclear power.

Zero Population and Economic Growth:

If we can manage to slow population growth we need to think of the economic consequences. In the future we will need to make quality products that last for as many years as possible rather than 'consumer society products', that look good but only last a short time. Many, if not most products made today, actually have planned obsolescence built in. With slow to zero population growth, not only will producing products that last for many years, stop the wasteful use of the earth's resources, it will be vital, to create employment to maintain and repair these products over many years. So rather than build more and more factories that employ less and less people per factory, if we make products that last a long time, we will create employment that will be needed for repairs and maintenance for these long lasting products. This is probably the only way we can have sustainable slow to zero population and economic growth; producing quality that lasts.

The significance of this cannot be overstated. On the one hand the whole of the western world is geared towards the consumer society and obsolescence of consumer goods and the need to have the latest fashions. On the other hand religious organizations and other groups with vested interests, are totally opposed to birth control necessary to stem population growth.

The list is long and entrenched attitudes will not easily be overcome. Modern humans have been on the Earth some 200,000 years and have so far survived. We have been given the powers of reason and the ability to understand the consequences of our actions. However our modern society is not in harmony with nature and we have overpopulated our planet. Is it not time to arise out of the cave of ignorance and to again start to think for ourselves? We need to get overpopulation and climate change at the top of the agenda. The medium to do this also now exists; the internet.

Where to start on this huge problem? Surely education must come first with five aims:

1) To educate people on the need for population growth reduction.

2) To overcome the huge religious and cultural objections.

3) To convince politicians of the need to stop overpopulation.

4) To advise on the need and educate people to use contraception and the best forms of contraception and to make contraception (particularly condoms and IUD's) easily and freely available in developing countries.

5) To convince everyone of the need for and the sustainability of zero population and economic growth

The controlling powers do not want to change things. Just like in the Age of Enlightenment a ground up movement by the people is required. We need to get people to start to understand the issues involved and start talking about them and lobbying our politicians through Twitter, Facebook and blogs. These days, having computers in the classroom is the norm, but will tablets and iPads also become the norm? They may be just a trend or they could be improvements for the desktop computer. A tablet is similar to a smartphone that has an increased capacity of computers. This may be a reason why they seem to be gaining popularity because with our increasingly mobile society, speed is surely essential. Additionally, the knowledge of how to download different apps needed to accomplish a task can be considered a survival skill in today's world. Even young children have a chance to collaborate and experiment in unique ways, which they will find useful when they grow up.

This can make for a great opportunity for students to get the expertise and confidence they will need. The reason why every student should "own" their own tablet will enhance how much they use it outside the classroom. There are at least three ways in which tablets are used: as an enhanced way of communicating between the teacher, parent and student, as personal organizers, and as a way of team collaboration. The perfect app for a tablet is the personal organizer because you can carry it with you easily and it retains all the functions of text, internet, music, camera and video.

The live video and multimedia apps improves communication between the student, parents and the teacher and because it is at home, it fits into the parents busy schedules. Teachers are able to communicate with the parents easier and the parents can view the student and their work directly, which takes away the burden for the teacher trying to describe certain behaviors. The portability is the key feature and collaboration is enhanced. When a team member gets some inspiration, they can easily communicate it to other team members who will help build on it. This great enhancement is only found in a tablet.

Educators in Zurich, Switzerland at the Zurich International School are very interested in what students create using their tablets, rather than how it is used in curriculum. Many students use their personal tablet for recording experiences and creating videos. By doing this, students have the opportunity to reflect and come up with new insights on ways to improve. For example, students can watch themselves in gym class and see how they can change their routine for the better. Another bonus that has been freely expressed it its ease of input. Ten years ago, Stanford University's Larry Cuban noted that computers were being "oversold and underused" in the classroom.

A modern day analysis is that teachers at that time did not know enough about computers to make effective use of them. As teachers are teamed with tablets and get proper training in how to use them, they will become very effective tools for teaching. Teachers being well trained is very important in this application, because of the ability to can be frustrating to students to manipulate the sophisticated apps. Students will see great strides forward once the teacher is part of the team that supports reflection and creativity. Students who have been given the appropriate support are able to achieve things they never imagined they could previously.

This really is a wonderful contribution. When the teacher to student ratio is balanced well, and the funds are there to support it, the iPad will make a great resource. I Pads and tablets can be found more often in private schools because teacher training and monetary support has been much more difficult to get in public schools.
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20/05/2019

Benefits of Education to the world

When I was growing up in Las Vegas, learning to drive was relatively easy. The fact is, driver's ed was offered in every high school in the valley. Because of that, teens seemed to pass the Nevada DMV driving test more easily. Due to budget cuts, however, the Clark County School District has virtually eliminated driver's education from the curriculum, making it more difficult for new teen drivers to pass their test on their first try. This article will tell you what to expect during your driving test and it will give you the information on how a driving school can help you with passing the test with ease.

Nevada DMV Requirements for Teen Drivers

Before you get your Nevada driver's license, you must meet certain requirements. As you are probably aware, the State of Nevada has become more strict on its rules for teen drivers seeking to get a Nevada driver's license. In the past, there was no driver's ed requirement nor was there a requirement of 50-hours behind the wheel required of your parents. Today, however, the Nevada DMV mandates that all teens under the age of eighteen must take a DMV approved Nevada driver's ed course as well as complete 50-hours of behind the wheel driving experience with their parent or a suitable driver that is 21-years of age or older. The teen driver's ed course can be taken online or in a classroom. Typically, classroom driver's ed courses are taken over the course of two full weekends (two Saturdays and two Sundays). As such, each class is 7 1/2 hours long. Due to space and the need for a teacher to instruct the class, these classroom driver's ed courses are usually more expensive than their online counterparts.

Online Driver's Ed in Nevada

Online driver's ed courses in Nevada, on the other hand, can cost as little as $45 and they can be taken in the comfort and convenience of your own home. Some online driver's ed courses offer students the ability to take their course on their smartphone or tablet, as long as the student has an internet connection. Online courses offer a great way for busy teens to learn as they go--at their own pace--rather than be subject to the speed of a classroom driver's ed course.

Some students get their Nevada learner's permit and begin their driving practice before completing their driver's education requirement. This is acceptable by the DMV. However, teens can actually take their Nevada driver's ed course at the age of 15 whereas they cannot take the Nevada DMV written test until they are 15 1/2 years old. So, someone eager to get their license would be better served fulfilling their driver's education requirement before they go to the DMV for the written test. This makes them far more likely to pass on their first attempt!

How a Driving School can Help

As mentioned, a large portion of teens fail their Nevada driving test on their first attempt, despite completing their Nevada driver's ed course and despite the fact that they have 50-hours of supervised driving under their belt. The reason for this is simple. Adult drivers pick up bad habits over the years, unknowingly, which are incidentally passed on to their teens who are learning to drive. Because of this, I always recommend that students take at least one professional driving lesson from a professional driving school. As mentioned, taking a behind the wheel driving lesson is the best way to hone the driving skills of a teen driver. This gives the teen an opportunity to see what is expected of them when they reach the DMV to take their driving test. In most cases, a professional driving instructor can put the teen through a series of practice tests that will simulate the actual Nevada DMV driving test. Doing this a few times will not only allow the student to know what to expect, it will result in them becoming much more confident and relaxed when the big day comes.

What to Expect During Your Nevada Driving Test

First, you should know that an appointment must be made before you can take the driving skills portion of the test. You can do this online. Once the teen arrives at the Nevada DMV location where their test will be, they will need to check in. The DMV runs pretty close to schedule and it's rare that the test taker will have to wait long past their appointment time.

Prior to taking the test, the DMV examiner will walk around the vehicle to ensure that it is safe to operate. If they find problems with the vehicle, the test will be cancelled. The DMV examiner will only go if they feel the vehicle is safe.

Once the vehicle is given the "OK" by the examiner, they will explain how the test works. This usually consists of them explaining that they expect you to drive safely, obey all traffic laws and follow their instructions. Keep in mind that they are not their to "trick" you and in most cases, they will be rooting for you to pass. But remember: this is serious business for them. They are attesting to the fact that you appear to be a safe and competent driver that can be trusted to drive among the rest of us.

The DMV examiner will then direct you through one of the DMV designated courses. This usually takes about 20-minutes and it consists of them scoring you on your driving performance. When you start the driving skills test, you begin with 100 points. Points are then deducted based on any errors you make, in the examiner's opinion.

Some of the most common errors and related point deductions are not coming to a full stop at stop signs, stopping past the stop sign, making unsafe lane changes, making improper turns, driving too fast and driving too slow. Again, many students believe that they are doing these things right. Oftentimes, however, DMV has expectations that are different than what the teen has learned.

This is, again, one of the reasons I encourage everyone to use a professional driving school at least once prior to their test but preferably when they are first getting started. Doing so gets the student started on the right foot. From there, they know the rules and they can then work on their driving practice within the rules that they DMV will be grading the student on.
When a baby is born, parents are also born. From being in a relationship to nurturing one with their child, the transition is major. Nevertheless, each parent enjoys it. You learn to teach your kid and suddenly the carefree starts to notice even the minutest of details when it comes to your child being affected by it. Just as raising your child is important, giving him or her access to the right type of education is also important. The simplest way to do this is to send your child to a good school. However, choosing a good school is where the parents are expected to exercise care and caution. It all starts with the pre-schooling phase.

Don't get us wrong, we are not trying to freak you out but we are warning against blindly admitting your kid to the first school that you come across.
Here are a few suggestions that can help you make the right decision while choosing a school for your kid:

Your kid is comfortable: Before finalizing the school, make sure you take your kid to see the place. Usually, pre-schools allow kids to come be a part of one of the classes for a day or two. This will help you gauge the comfort level of your little one and accordingly empower you to take an informed decision.

Teaching methods: Focus on choosing a school that teaches using innovative methods like real objects, demonstrations, etc. This is because any child will learn better if he or she gets an opportunity to see the things instead of just being told about them.

Mathematical concepts: A lot of kids fear mathematics but that is because they are never taught to embrace the concepts in the right way. Right from preschool, your child has to be exposed to mathematical concepts. Though the initial exposure is in a playful manner, it helps your kid learn.

Teacher student ration: This is an important aspect that should be considered. If the teacher to student ratio is high, it means your child will get better attention. On the other hand, if there are more students in every class, the teacher will obviously not be able to focus on your child and so learning will happen slowly. The CBSE examinations are barely a few days away. Being the first public examination for thousands of students in hundreds of schools across the country, they definitely play an important role.

Performing well in this examination gives the students a boost to their confidence and goes a long way in shaping a brighter future for themselves in the days ahead. So let us take a look at how well the CBSE structure is designed, what are the subjects and what are the books?

First of all, as parents if you'd like to have a quick glance at the course books for your children, you can simply go online and view the books. Of course, from here you also have the option to buy textbooks online. Apart from that a look at the following subjects can help you to help your children prepare well for the examination. Besides, it is also understandable that being caught up in the busy schedule of your own work, you may not have the time to visit the retail stores and buy books. That is exactly the reason due to which online bookstores have come up which and with the help of ecommerce; you can easily buy CBSE books online.

Moreover, as you return home after a hard days work and as a concerned parent you would like to monitor the progress of your child or even for that matter, find out ways in which to help him, you can log on to these online book stores where you get to buy these CBSE books online. You can do this sitting from the very comfort of your home or even through your smart phone when you are travelling.

Citing two examples here considering the various subjects and the various books for the examination available. These are given just to give an idea what dilemmas the students go thorough and how it can be effectively solved when you buy school books online.

- Core Social Sciences History (India and The Contemporary World - I) - History is a subject often disliked by most students. The reason is that there are a lot of facts to be memorized which do not really go down well. Too many facts, too many dates, too many people, it is overbearing and intimidating. Books like this particular one help students to understand and easily remember the history events. The degree to which a government ethically and transparently protects, represents and provides services to its citizens is good governance. It promotes the collective responsibility of the government, civil society and private sector for improving the lives of all citizens, particularly the poor. According to the National Statistics Coordinating Board of the Philippines, good governance is the key to a successful development agenda. But this calls for good governance not only at the national and international levels but also at the subnational level. While several governance indicators have been developed at the international and country level often based on perception surveys, there are not enough useful specific and more objective indicators that can be used to guide our policymakers and stakeholders at the national and subnational level.

I strongly believe that institutions like the Department of Education promoting good governance should work by a set of seven principles known as the Nolan Principles which, if followed by all agencies and individuals, should lead to a responsive and honest government.

The seven Nolan Principles are selflessness, objectivity, integrity, honesty, accountability, openness and leadership. Selflessness is about being humble and compassionate. Selflessness lets one dedicate his life to helping others. Buddhists also strongly believe in Selflessness. Selflessness is the quality of not putting yourself first but being willing to give your time or money or effort for others. Public servants like educators should be selfless in that their professional decisions should benefit the public, not themselves. They must also take care to stay objective and avoid subjectivity of thought and actions. Objectivity on the other hand is a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth, which has been variously defined by sources. It is the state or quality of being true even outside of a subject's individual biases, interpretations, feelings, and imaginings. As administrators, we must have the ability in any context to judge fairly, without bias or external influence.

Integrity is the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles; moral uprightness. It is generally a personal choice to uphold oneself to consistent moral and ethical standards. The principles of honesty and integrity are concerned not just telling the truth. In the context of public life, these principles demand that public servants ensure that they are not beholden to outside interests such as lobbyists, corporations or labor organizations who may try to improperly influence them. Though not all relationships to such organizations must necessarily be negative, the principle of honesty states that public servants should disclose relationships that have even the potential for a conflict of interests.

In ethics and governance, accountability is related with integrity and moral responsibility, liability, and the expectation of account-giving. As an aspect of governance, it has been central to discussions related to problems in the public sector. In leadership roles, accountability is the acknowledgment and assumption of responsibility for actions, products, decisions, and policies including the administration, governance, and implementation within the scope of the role or employment position and encompassing the obligation to report, explain and be answerable for resulting consequences. Openness as a principle of good governance is an overarching concept or philosophy that is characterized by an emphasis on transparency and free unrestricted access to knowledge and information as well as collaborative or cooperative management and decision-making rather than a central authority. Openness can be said to be the opposite of secrecy.
Education is the term used to refer to learning by which knowledge, belief and habits as well as skills and values of one group of people is passed to another, from generation to generation through various aspects such as discussion, storytelling, teaching and training. It not only denotes the 'formal transmission' through these factors to a group of people but also 'informal transmission' from one person to another.

It is the system where learning takes place under the guidance of teachers and tutors; in the same way, those who teach can also educate themselves further. This is called 'autodidactic learning'.

Education can also be used to denote 'the knowledge gained from an experience that has an impacted effect on a person's beliefs, thoughts, feelings and actions'.

The word 'education' has its origin from the Latin word 'educatio' used to refer to 'a bringing up'. Broadly, 'educo' relates to the meaning "I train, I educate"; 'educo' itself is the combination of 'e' (from) and 'duco' (I conduct).

The 'right to education' is a fundamental right accorded to the citizens of many governments worldwide. The United Nations' International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights endorses and recognizes the right to education for all the citizens. In most countries, education is compulsory for children up to a certain age. In developed and developing countries, formal education is that where children go to school to learn from qualified and skilled teachers. More often these days, school attendance is not always compulsory and that leads many parents to 'home school' or 'home tutor' their children with the assistance of either private teachers or through methods involving e-learning, which is the use of electronic material and technology to learn. This is a kind of informal learning.

The 'art and science' of education, which translates into 'how best to teach' is called Pedagogy. At school level, education is categorized into stages like preschool, primary, secondary, higher or tertiary etc while beyond school higher education is slotted into college and university and/or apprenticeship.

History of Education

In ancient history, there is the reference of the 'Academy' founded by Plato in Athens before 300 BC. The city of Alexandria, founded in 330 BC surpassed Athens as the 'cradle of intellect' in ancient Greece. The Library of Alexandria, a historical monument contained translations of the Bible from Hebrew to Greek under the patronage of mathematicians and astronomers like Euclid and Herophilus. The supremacy of the earliest European civilizations came to an end when the Roman Empire declined in 476 AD.

The focus then shifted eastward with the Chinese philosopher-scholar Confucius whose outlook on education and reforms influenced many south-east Asian nations like Korea, Japan and Vietnam. His teachings and discussions were recorded by his followers and his philosophies continue to exert influence to this day in many parts of Asia. In India, for instance, the gurukul tradition of teaching and learning where a teacher or trainer taught knowledge and skills to his 'wards' by living and training with the master in a community set up has continued in some form to this day at institutes and schools where fine arts, music and dance forms are taught.

In various regions around the world, adults of one generation trained the young of the following one in the knowledge, values and skills through oral teaching and through imitation prior to the birth of literary societies and skill sets. As cultures flourished, a system of formal education appeared to impart knowledge and skills; there is evidence of the presence of schools in Egypt in ancient days.

The Early Middle Ages saw the rise of the Catholic Church as the preserver of literary teaching and skills; many medieval universities of Christendom across Europe encourage freedom of thought, speech and enquiry producing a vast number of fine philosophers and scholars. Among the oldest continually operating universities of Europe, the University of Bologne is considered the first and the
Many believe that some of the most important traits to make an excellent teacher include the ability to command respect and inspire their students to study. Teaching is probably one of the hardest and most important professions in today's workplace. A student's outlook and future can be greatly influenced by those teaching them excellently.
I also agree with the famous news writer in the Philippines when he stressed that being world-class does not mean going internationally and showing our best out there; instead, being world-class is passion and commitment to our profession; being world-class is giving our best to teaching. Being world-class starts right inside the classroom. Social scientists around the globe strongly agree that to be an excellent teacher, one not only has to have a full command of the subject but also full knowledge of the course structure and evaluation system. The teacher should also have a good understanding of the study habits and learning styles of students within the class and this can only be attained through continuous learning or training on the part of the teacher. Many enjoy teaching bright students, those who only require concepts to be explained once and can absorb their newly found knowledge like a sponge. Unfortunately, when the same teacher is presented with a thick student, they feel frustrated. Nothing can get through the child's head and the teacher simply assumes this is down to poor genetics. The teacher will then encourage the child to find something else they are good at such as sports, art or music. This is an example of poor and lazy teaching, something that should be discouraged within the teaching profession if quality education is the goal of every mentor.
Most educators and social scientists agree that good teachers should see all their students as equal. If a student is willing to learn, the teacher should be able to guide the student to achieving good grades. Unfortunately many teachers prefer to neglect their responsibilities by blaming it on the student. This is a disgraceful act and in such instances the student is better off learning on their own. Even if students do not have the willingness to learn, often there are many simple reasons for this. An excellent teacher can inspire even those that lack motivation and are at the bottom of the class in order for them to learn and enjoy the activities that an excellent teacher prepared for the day.
Educators in the 21st century stressed that an excellent teacher should have a firm understanding of accelerated learning techniques such as mind mapping, and visual thinking. Although such techniques are simple, they are essential for achieving success. Such techniques will allow even those with the poorest academic grades to achieve top grades as long as they have the passion and motivation and this can be attained when teachers are trained and involved in continuous re-learning to update their skills and knowledge in the teaching profession to cope with the changes of modern times. Moreover, an excellent teacher should have the ability to inspire students to achieve top grades through genuine interest and motivation rather than fear of failure. This can be done by communicating the subject through interest and using the mind mapping techniques to help the students visualize and understand the given material. In fact, research shows that an inspiring and well- informed teacher is the most important school-related factor influencing student achievement, so it is critical to pay close attention to how we train and support both new and experienced mentors in our department.


Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/8925014
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Preparing Your Child to Go to School

The conference of the learned and wise people is known as 'sangam' in Tamil. The poets and academicians gathered periodically at Madurai for deliberations on their academic works. According to Tamil legends there were three sangams called 'mudhal sangam', 'idai sangam', and kadai sangam. The works of the first sangam is not available because the city where they held the conferences was submerged by flood waters or sea level rise. The 'kadai sangam' produced a rich source of Tamil literature: 'patthuppattu', 'etthutthogai', and 'pathinenkiizhkkanakku'. The period from 400 BC to AD 500 is regarded as Sangam period. It covered the entire South India including Tamil Nadu, Kerala, part of Andhra Pradesh, and part of Karnataka. It was ruled by three kingdoms called Chera, Chozha, and Pandiya. They were known as moovendhargal (Three great kings). Senguttuvan was the greatest king of Cheras, Karikaal Chozhan was the greatest king of Chozhas, and Nedunchezhiyan was the greatest King of Pandyas. In the sangam age the land was divided into five regions according to the landscape, season, and mood. They were called aynthinaigal, the five kudis or clans: Kurinji, Mullai, Marutham, Neithal, and Palai. The people of these five regions were in general called malavars (who gather hill products), kadambars (who thrive on forest), mallars (farmers), nagars (guards of city), and thiraiyars (seafarers) according to their way of living.

Kurinji: It includes mountains, mountain valleys, and mountain plains. Kurinji is the name of a flower which is found in the Western Ghats. According to a legend it blossoms once in 12 years. People in the Kurinji land worshipped mother goddess, 'Kottravai' and a male deity called 'Sevvael' or 'Karthikeyan' (Lord Murugan). Their chief economic activity is gathering hill products for their own use and for trade with the neighbors. People of this region also practiced different professions Viz. poruppas (soldiers), verpans (weapon-ists), silamban (masters of martial arts), kuravars (hunters and gatherers), and kanavars (people of mountainous forests).

Mullai: It includes the forests at the foot hills. People in this region worshipped 'Thirumaal'. The economic activities of the people were gathering forest products, cultivating lands wherever available, and cattle rearing. People known by their professions are kurumporai nadan-kizhaththis (landlords), thonral-manaivi (minister and noble couples), idaiyars (milkmaids), and aiyars (cattle rearers).

Marutham: It is the land of the plains. They worshipped a male deity called 'Vaendan'. The main activity of these people was agriculture. There were also traders and merchants. People known by their professions were mallar (farmers), pallar (warriors), uraans (small land lords), magizhans (small scale farmers), uzhavars (farm workers), and kadaiyars (merchants).

Neithal: It is the land of the coastal region. They worshipped Kadalon. The people lived in this region were generally called "thiraiyans" (sea-farers). People known by their professions were saerppans (sea-food vendors), pulampans (people who deal in palm products), paravas (sea warriors), nulaiyars (wealthy fishermen), and alavars (the salt cultivators).

Palai: It is the land of desert or dry-land. People lived in this region are known as eyinars or eyitriyars (robbers).

Social life: People believed God (Adi Bagawan, Kadavul, and Irraivan). They worshipped mother goddess 'Kottravai' and a male deity 'Murugan'. But we do not know whether they followed a particular religion or followed Hinduism in the modern sense. Buddhists and Jains who came from North India were accepted by the local people. They even contributed to Tamil literature especially the Jains. Probably, caste was not known to them. They were known by their names and professions and not by their caste name. They led a secular life and gave more importance to ethics, politics, and love life. Women actively participated in politics, education, and economic life.

Musicians and dancers entertained the king and the common people. Musical instruments known to them were thudi (a small percussion instrument), maylam (drum), muzhavu (wind instrument), kadambarai ( a large bass-like drum), kuzhal (similar to nagasuram), and yazh (stringed instrument). They enjoyed kootthu, a stage drama in dance form. Parayan (drum), muzhavan (muzhavu), kadamban (kadambarai), and paanan (yazh) were the musicians known by their expertise in a particular musical instrument.

Literature: The literary works composed at the first conference held at South Madurai under the chairmanship of Agastiyar is not available. Except Tholkappiyam, a grammar book, written by Tholkappiyar who chaired the second conference held at Kapaadapuram, all other scholarly works are not available. At the third conference convened in Madurai, 473 poets, men and women, composed around 2,381 poems. No other Tamil literary work, in the past 2,000 years of Tamil history, has surpassed the classical standard of the poems composed by the poets of the third conference. The poems mainly had two themes called 'agam' (inner) and 'puram' (outer). While 'agam' deals with personal and human aspects 'puram' deals with heroism, valor, ethics, benevolence, philanthropy, social life, and customs. The most popular literary work 'Thirukkural' written by poet Thiruvalluvar belongs to the third conference. It contains 1,330 two lines poems, the first line with 4 words and the second line with 3 words throughout.

Trade: Agriculture, weaving, pearl fishery, manufacturing, and construction were the main economic activities in this period. They cultivated paddy, pepper, millets, grams, and sugarcane. Rice was their staple food. They manufactured cloths made of cotton and wood fiber. They exported cotton cloth, pearl, ivory, and pepper to Egypt and Rome and imported luxury goods such as glass, coral, wine, and topaz. Madurai and Urayur were major textile centers. Pearl trade flourished in Korkai. Muziris, Thondi, and Kaverippattanam were the other major trade centers. Archeological evidences show that they probably used Roman coins as a medium of exchange for exports and imports. The Kallanai built by the king Karikal Chozhan is one of the oldest water regulation structures in the world. It remains in working condition.

Most of Sangam Age Tamilagam was on the rain shadow region. Since the south-west monsoon did not bring rain to the rain shadow region they depended on river irrigation. The western region got abundant rains but did not have plains. The Western Ghats was at the same time a gift and a curse. Probably Nature expected people to be interdependent. Tamilagam did not have a desert. But, in the rain shadow region the enormous stretch of plains which could not be irrigated were generally dry. Yet, people lived in this dry land (eyinars and eyitriyars). Maybe these people did not find enough opportunities in other lands. Otherwise, the society by and large was egalitarian. Women were addressed with respect and dignity. Apart from chivalry, chastity was among the virtues glorified. Traders could travel freely into any of the three kingdoms. One of the principal duties of the King was to protect the traders. Foreign travelers noted that Tamilagam was richer than Rome.

It is important to note that even after 2,000 years the language is still in active use though the language had undergone a lot of change (the change is mostly absorption of words from other languages). For example, the word 'sangam' is not a Tamil word. Probably, it must have been introduced to Tamil by the Jain scholars. The present form of the language is more flexible. One reason could be the focus on contextual meaning rather than phonemes. For example, if you ask a Tamil shop owner, "give me one palam", the shop owner will correctly give you one pazham (banana). The sentence, "give me one palam", does not produce any other meaning in that context. For fresh graduates aspiring to be a SAP consultant, the transformation is not easy. You have to race yourself to soak in the knowledge and get loads of hands on practice in order to develop the expertise. When companies are hiring SAP consultants, they often do a half-baked job and end up hiring someone who just has qualification just on paper. These guys may look good but they are unable to do a good job and the result is that your money invested.

Here are a few tips to keep in mind that can help you plan your career as a SAP consultant

Get certified: Becoming a SAP consultant starts with adding the right qualification to your resume. There are several institutes that offer courses allowing you to specialize in the domain of SAP implementation. However, you have to exercise care and caution in choosing good institution so that the certification that you earn at the end of the program holds value.

Gaining expertise: Even when you get the qualification working as a consultant should not be your first option. Instead, you should focus on gaining some experience by assisting an expert or joining an IT firm to get a better idea.

Understanding the needs of the business: SAP is also a software solution for your business that can help in enhancing the performance provided it is implemented the right way or done by the right people. Therefore, if you are aspiring to be a SAP consultant, it is important to understand the needs of the business and accordingly modify the solution to best suit these requirements.

Update yourself with the latest trends: SAP is a software program and so it is constantly updated. As a consultant, you also need to be updated with the latest trends. Enrol yourself amongst a group so that you are regularly updated. Also, as and when the updates happen, upgrade your qualification as well. It is one of the important things to remember.

Establish your list of clients: Your career as a SAP consultant will be flourishing. However, everyone has to go through the initial phase of establishing the clientele. The initial response may not be too good. However, you still have to sustain your practice and prove your expertise. This effort ultimately pays off in terms of a rewarding career because this is where you earn your referrals that will help your business grow faster.
Education is one of the most important stages in the lifetime of your child. After the parents, it is the teachers who help the child to live a good life. But the first day at school is always difficult for the child as well as the parent. While the parent is able to cope with the change of leaving his or her beloved child in order to contribute towards the betterment of their baby, children often find it difficult to adjust. However, it is important for them to get comfortable with the environment of the school in order to open their minds to the various concepts of learning:

As a parent, here is how you can help your child prepare for his or her first day at school:

Involve them in choosing the school: When you are choosing the school for your little one, make sure you are involving him or her. Simple things like being shown the school, its playground, etc. go a long way in making your child comfortable.

School shopping: Going to school also means your child will need a bag, bottle and a lot of other accessories. Make this fun for them by bringing them along for the accessories shopping.

Pep talk: Going to school should not be a random decision. You should start talking to your child several days before, gradually coaxing them to accept the idea of going to school and learning.

Be there on the first day: Kids take time to adjust to schools. Therefore, it is important for the parents to be patient. Also, parents accompanying their kids on the first day of school are the kind of moral support that the little ones look for. It helps them adapt to the environs of the school faster.

Help them make friends: School is also the first place where your kid gets to interact with many others that fall in his age group. The idea of sharing, making friends, etc. are all introduced in schools. Therefore, help your child make friends in the school.

Student teacher ratio: When choosing the school, try to focus on picking an option with low student to teacher ratio so that you are guaranteed that your child will get ample attention.

Listen to your child: If in spite your best efforts, the kid is still facing problems going to school, we would recommend you to hear them out. You never know. Sometimes it could be a genuine problem that is bothering them.
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14/05/2019

How benefit of cold wealth condition

But in practice, this concept is often misused by not following any/all of the norms of the characteristics of acronyms. For example in the sentence "I am an M.B.B.S", M.B.B.S is not acronym because there are full stops between the letters. Likewise 'Viscom' (Visual communications) is not an acronym because the contents are not individual letters and it is written in lower case. Neither Rs (rupees) nor Mike (Michael) are acronyms and they are only abbreviations.

I wish to record some very crude usage of this concept even at international level.

There is a widespread saying that NEWS is an acronym for North, East, West and South which is absolutely wrong. News is a separate word meaning that new happenings. Needless to add, old happenings are not news but only history. They say that information are gathered from four directions and so abbreviation the four directions are branded as NEWS. That is not correct because not all the letters are in capital letters and the amplification need not have similar meaning with the words abbreviated. Secondly there are more directions than the four mentioned. News are obtained from space also.

Another wrong usage in this concept is the word LIONS. People belonging to Lions clubs International record that amplification of LIONS is 'Liberty, Intelligence and Our Nations Safety," the meaning of which God only knows. If 'LIONS' dot mean the animal king Lion, then how the children of the members are known as LION CUBS and their life partner, Lion ladies? Are they 'Liberty, Intelligence and our Nation's safety' ladies? One more important observation is that it is LION'S CLUBS INTERNATIONAL and not mere National. Hence the question of 'Our Nation's Safety' does not arise. It is clear that they are coining some words to accommodate the initials.

Thus Lions clubs are crucifying English words by an immature translation. (The author of this article was an active LION member for twenty years and he has spent considerable portion of his savings for Social services through LIONS Clubs.)

Certain people make their own abbreviations and amplifications. In college student elections, we have noted such usage frequently. Suppose a contestant's name is Sita there will posters saying Elect and select S (sincere), I(intelligent),T (Talented), A(Active) and so on as if Sita is an acronym for the four words mentioned. What if the opponents write as Sleeping, Intriguing, Torturous and Adamant?

Hence it is my fervent appeal to students and scholars of English language to desist from crucifying the language by misusing this concept of acronyms. Acronyms are used for brevity and clarity.. Sometimes they are used as 'secret code' also. Let us not misuse this concept narrow-minded purposes

Dr Sathyanarayanan Bhimarao is a multi-faceted personality. He is M.Sc (Physics) from Annamalai University. He got Ph.D is psychological counselling in HIV/AIDS. He is a writer from a very young age. He has written several articles, short stories and plays which were published in popular magazines. He is a writer in the subjects of Philosophy and science. He is the founder of Holistic Philosophy Society and is conducting several seminars on Physics and Philosophy. He is publishing a Tamil and an English magazines with several features like short stories, plays and articles. Silicon carbide is popularly known as the carborundum. It is a popular compound that is made with the help of elements like carbon and silicon. The chemical formula of this compound is SIC. It occurs naturally in the raw material which is known as the moissanite. In the year 1893, this compound or silicon carbide is produced in huge percentage for using as the abrasive material. The manufacturers combine grains of SIC together with the help of the sintering process to form a hard type of ceramics. They are used in various applications like the car clutches, vests, detectors and many more.

Apart from these usages, the compound is used in the semi conductor devices that generally work in the HV areas. The users can use larger crystals of silicon carbide with the help of Lely method. They are cut in the small pieces with the help of the SIC.

Carbide is a hard compound that is used in the carbothermal reduction of the element silica. Depending on the situations, the resultant SIC that is formed may be in the powder form or available in the ground mass state.

The reaction bonded carborundum has various properties. It is one of the refractory materials that high melting point. It is also having high thermal conductivity and thermal expansion characteristics. Moreover, SIC that is available in the market is hard in nature, excessive stiff and corrosion resistance. Carbide is also having some interesting properties like the semi-conductor features.

There are various commercial uses of carborundum. They are used in the engineering applications and available in three different forms like the silicon carbide, nitride bonded silicon carbide and the reaction bonded silicon carbide. There are various uses of silicon carbide. The very first form is that they are used in the refractory applications that depend on the manufacturing needs.

There are various advantages of using SIC. They are used in the electric voltage purposes. This compound is having HV acceptance than the original compound. SIC switches that are available in the market are to be fitted in various applications depending upon the requirements. It helps in reducing the system complexity, reliable to the users and they are also used as they are cost-effective. Silicon carbide works in the region that has high temperature that is more than 400 Celsius. Thus, when you require these above benefits, it is very important to buy the SIC.
Alumina Ceramic offers superior insulation properties for electricity along with great wear and tear resistance and high hardness but has a comparatively lower strength and the fracture toughness. It is the most mature form of the engineering ceramics. Most of the Alumina Ceramics is generally white. Some of them might also be pink which has about eighty-eight percent of alumina or brown that has approximately ninety six percent of alumina. The colour of the ceramic comes from the impurities in the raw materials or from the sintering additives.

Alumina ceramics that have superior purity are best for the environment where in the resistance to corrosive substances or wear and tear is required. These ceramics are also used in areas where the temperatures are very high and resistance to it is required as this ceramic is known to have a great thermal stability. For the alumina wear parts, the alumina ceramic is the best material as the ability to resist heat and wear and tear makes the ceramic ideal for manufacturing of components that are wear resistant.

Alumina is known to be an excellent electrical insulator having resistance to very high electricity. The great thing about alumina is the fact that the resistance to electricity increases with the purity of it. The more pure alumina is, the higher the resistance would be. Alumina also has a very high melting point and high hardness. The mechanical strength starts to reduce when the temperature goes beyond 1000 C. Hence, the resistance to thermal shock reduces because of the huge coefficient of the thermal expansion.

The high resistance to corrosion in alumina is derived from a great chemical stability. Alumina is slightly soluble in alkaline and strong acid solutions and absolutely insoluble in water. The alumina with superior purity is the main choice for the components in a wide array of industrial applications because of its ability to resist chemical corrosion. It has been proved that the alumina has high resistance to the corrosion caused by chemicals because of the lower solubility in chemicals.

The alumina ceramic is blended with the additives that work on enhancing its properties. A great variety of shapes and sizes of the components can be produced by using several varieties of the processing methods of ceramic like net shape or machining. High thermal conductivity, high resistance to heat, great insulator of electricity and high resistance to corrosion are a few factors why alumina ceramics is favoured amongst many manufacturers. Boron carbide is generally used in the bulletproof vests, engine sabotage powders and rank armors. They are also used for several industrial applications. This is definitely a hard material but it is definitely not harder than diamond and boron nitride.

This compound was discovered much earlier in the 19th century. This occurred from reactions of metal boride as a by-product. But the chemical formula for this compound is unknown. In the later times approximately in the 1930s, the chemical formula for the compound was estimated to be B4C. This material is slightly carbon deficient if one refers to the formula.

It is attractive as an absorbent because they have an extremely good ability to absorb boron carbide. The nuclear applications include shielding, shut down pellets and control rod. The boron carbide is often powered within the control rods to increase the surface area.

The properties of boron carbide:

Well, boron carbide as we have already mentioned before is quite hard. There is a cross section that especially makes the neutron absorption possible. There is very much stability that provides ionization of the radiations and most of the chemicals. As the third-hardest substance available, it is often referred to as a black diamond.

This material is p-type. It is also a semiconductor having electronic properties. The band gap of energy largely depends on the composition and the degree of order. It has many mid-band gap states but the most common band gap is estimated to be 2.09eV. This is responsible for the complication of the photoluminescence spectrum.

How is boron carbide prepared?

For the very first time, it was synthesized by Henri Moissan, in the year 1899. He has reduced boron trioxide in the presence of carbon from magnesium or carbon in an electric arc furnace. While if you are considering the case of carbon the reaction occurs at a temperature that is above the melting point of the compound. This also releases large amounts of carbon monoxide. If magnesium is used in the process then the reaction can be done in a graphite furnace. The byproducts of magnesium can be further removed by acid treatment.

What are the uses of boron carbide?

They are having multiple uses. They are used as abrasives, metal matrix composites, padlocks, cutting tools and dies, etc. They are also used in vehicle and personal anti-ballistic armor plating. The manufacturers find it safe to use it in the in brake linings of the vehicles, scratch, and water resistant coatings, grit blasting nozzles, scratch and wear resistant coatings and for many other purposes. Alumina, also known as Aluminum Oxide is the most well-known material commonly used as ceramic beads. It has a crystal appearance just like ruby and sapphire. It has been used in the electric insulation for over decades. Its exceptional mechanical properties like high strength and resistance against corrosion have made the material widely popular in the diverse domains of industries. If you are still not convinced about the beneficial aspects of this material, the below-mentioned points would most certainly change your mind. Let us take a good look at them.

Why are Alumina Ceramic Beads so popular?

Alumina is an excellent material, which has a wide variety of applications. It is a well-balanced matter that has durable parts, making it ideal for the sectors, where there are high-temperatures just like furnaces. It has certain distinguishing thermal, mechanical and other properties, which make it stable both physically and chemically. These amazing characteristics have allowed alumina ceramic to acquire widespread recognition among the manufacturers.

Apart from the above-mentioned aspects, alumina could also be used in a diverse range of clarities along with other additives that enhances the already existing properties of the material. Different ceramic processing procedures are applied on the material, which includes net shape formation or machining, in order to produce items of varied shapes, sizes and components.

Alumina based ceramic beads are considered to be the best possible product. Owing to the combination of a number of properties, it is able to make its name among so many insulating materials. Well, as we have discussed the individual properties of alumina, let us now move on to explain the distinct characteristics of alumina ceramic- a product as a whole. My oldest son is a soldier. He arrived in this life, the day before my 34th birthday, kicking and screaming like a banchee, and to be honest, he hasn't stopped. He'll take a good battle over the easy road any day of the week, but he gets things done.

As a toddler, his big plan for life was to grow up and be a cowboy. He loved to walk around in his Daddy's boots, and even though Daddy complained about it, Sean did it anyway. I remember telling him once that those were big boots to fill, and he said, "My feet are going to be bigger."

At the time, I laughed it off, didn't think much about it, and I spent a good amount of time helping him find ways to learn, grow, and become the independent young man that he is today.

He learned that choices have consequences.

When he was about seven we dug a pond in our front yard, and after it had been dug, he and his friends filled it full of rocks. The friends went home, and the next morning, his job was to take all the rocks out of the pond and stack them on the side so we could put the liner in the pond. Two days later, when his friends came back to visit, he shared his experience with them, and convinced them that since he had to clear out the pond by himself, they should help clean out the chicken coop. Choices have consequences.

Reading wasn't his strong suit, but he found alternatives.

He loved to learn, but he hated to read. He would beg his sisters to read to him, and listened intently anytime anyone read a book. He could memorize details faster than anyone I've ever known, and his memory of historical facts is second to none. He loved History, so he would find documentaries about history, and listen or watch those, then he'd spend hours studying up on the details of the documentary. Studying, researching was more interesting than just reading about it, and he was able to answer a lot of his own questions. Education became a game of challenge, research, and learn more.

Working to learn, learning from work.

On the job training became part of his process of learning, and he loved travel. He would grab any opportunity to travel and learn more. Apprenticeships are difficult to come by, but he found three ways to get apprenticeships, and learn as he worked. Farm jobs were plentiful, and he loved working in the country. Political training, jobs, and working with political leaders became a strong second alternative way to learn history. He would spend hours pouring over historical journals and documents.
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